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Definition of Real time

Real Time Image 1

Real time

A real time stock or bond quote is one that states a security's most recent offer to sell or bid (buy).
A delayed quote shows the same bid and ask prices 15 minutes and sometimes 20 minutes after a trade takes place.



Related Terms:

electronic data interchange (EDI)

the computer-to-computer transfer of information in virtual real time using standardized formats developed by the American National Standards Institute


After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.


approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs


Break-even time

Related: Premium payback period.


Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.



cycle time

the time between the placement of an order to
the time the goods arrive for usage or are produced by
the company; it is equal to value-added time plus nonvalue-
added time


employee time sheet

a source document that indicates, for each employee, what jobs were worked on during the day and for what amount of time


Real Time Image 2

Exchange Rate, Real

The nominal exchange rate corrected for price level differences.


idle time

the amount of time spent in storing inventory or
waiting at a production operation for processing


inspection time

the time taken to perform quality control activities


Interest Rate, Real

Nominal interest rate less expected inflation.


Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.


just-in-time (JIT)

a philosophy about when to do something;
the when is “as needed” and the something is a production,
purchasing, or delivery activity


Just-in-time (JIT)

A cluster of manufacturing, design, and delivery practices designed to
continually reduce all types of waste, thereby improving production efficiency.


Just-in-time manufacturing

The term for several manufacturing innovations that
result in a “pull” method of production, in which each manufacturing workstation
creates just enough product for the immediate needs of the next workstation in the
production process.


just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production


Real Time Image 3

just-in-time training

a system that maps the skill sets employees
need and delivers the training they need just as they need it


lead time

see cycle time



Market timer

A money manager who assumes he or she can forecast when the stock market will go up and down.


Net Realizable Value

Selling price of an asset less expenses of bringing the asset into a saleable state and expenses of the sale.


net realizable value approach

a method of accounting for by-products or scrap that requires that the net realizable value of these products be treated as a reduction in the cost of the primary products; primary product cost may be reduced by decreasing either
(1) cost of goods sold when the joint products are sold or
(2) the joint process cost allocated to the joint products


net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products that uses, as the proration base, sales value at split-off minus all costs necessary
to prepare and dispose of the products; it requires
that all joint products be salable at the split-off point


Net realizeable value

The expected revenue to be gained from the sale of an item or
service, less the costs of the sale transaction.


Overtime

A pay premium of 50 percent of the regular rate of pay that is earned
by employees on all hours worked beyond 40 hours in a standard work week


processing time

the actual time consumed performing the
functions necessary to manufacture a product


Real

Measured in base year, or constant, dollars. Contrast with nominal.


Real Actions (Earnings) Management

Involves operational steps and not simply acceleration
or delay in the recognition of revenue or expenses. The delay or acceleration of shipment would
be an example.


Real Time Image 4

Real assets

Identifiable assets, such as buildings, equipment, patents, and trademarks, as distinguished from a
financial obligation.



real assets

Assets used to produce goods and services.


Real Business Cycle Theory

Belief that business cycles arise from real shocks to the economy, such as technology advances and natural resource discoveries, and have little to do with monetary policy.


Real capital

Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial
securities, and real estate.


Real cash flow

A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash
flow is given.


Real Exchange Rate

Exchange rate adjusted for relative price levels.


Real exchange rates

Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.


Real GDP

GDP expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing nominal GDP by a price index.


Real Income

Income expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing nominal income by a price index.


Real interest rate

The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms
of constant-purchasing-power dollars. Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate
adjusted for inflation.


Real Interest Rate

The rate of interest paid on an investment adjusted for inflation


real interest rate

Rate at which the purchasing power of an investment increases.


Real market

The bid and offer prices at which a dealer could do "size." Quotes in the brokers market may
reflect not the real market, but pictures painted by dealers playing trading games.


real microprofit center

a center whose output has a market value


Real Money Supply

Money supply expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing the money supply by a price index.


real options

Options embedded in real assets.


Real Rate of Interest

See interest rate, real.


real value of $1

Purchasing power–adjusted value of a dollar.


Real Wage

Wage expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing the money wage by a price index.


Realizable Revenue A revenue transaction where assets received in exchange for goods and

services are readily convertible into known amounts of cash or claims to cash.


Realized compound yield

Yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest
rate at the time of their receipt and rolled over until the bond matures.


Realized Gains and Losses

Increases or decreases in the fair value of an asset or a liability that
are realized through sale or settlement.


Realized return

The return that is actually earned over a given time period.


Realized Revenue

A revenue transaction where goods and services are exchanged for cash or
claims to cash.


realized value approach

a method of accounting for byproducts or scrap that does not recognize any value for these products until they are sold; the value recognized
upon sale can be treated as other revenue or other income


REIT (real estate investment trust)

real estate investment trust, which is similar to a closed-end mutual
fund. REITs invest in real estate or loans secured by real estate and issue shares in such investments.


REMIC (real estate mortgage investment conduit)

A pass-through tax entity that can hold mortgages
secured by any type of real property and issue multiple classes of ownership interests to investors in the form
of pass-through certificates, bonds, or other legal forms. A financing vehicle created under the Tax Reform
Act of 1986.


service time

the actual time consumed performing the functions
necessary to provide a service


Time Clock

A device used to stamp an employee’s incoming or outgoing time
on either a paper document or an electronic record.


Time decay

Related: theta.


Time deposit

Interest-bearing deposit at a savings institution that has a specific maturity.
Related: certificate of deposit.


Time Deposit

See term deposit.


Time draft

Demand for payment at a stated future date.


Time premium

Also called time value, the amount by which the option price exceeds its intrinsic value. The
value of an option beyond its current exercise value representing the optionholder's control until expiration,
the risk of the underlying asset, and the riskless return.


Time to maturity

The time remaining until a financial contract expires. Also called time until expiration.


Time until expiration

The time remaining until a financial contract expires. Also called time to maturity.


Time value of an option

The portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining
until the expiration date of the option contract, and that the underlying components that determine the value of
the option may change during that time. time value is generally equal to the difference between the premium
and the intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.


Time value of money

The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar
received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.


Time-weighted rate of return

Related: Geometric mean return.


Timecard

A document or electronic record on which an employee records his or
her hours worked during a payroll period.


timeline

representation of the amounts and timing of all
cash inflows and outflows; it is used in analyzing cash flow
from a capital project


times interest earned

A ratio that tests the ability of a business to make
interest payments on its debt, which is calculated by dividing annual
earnings before interest and income tax by the interest expense for the
year. There is no particular rule for this ratio, such as 3 or 4 times, but
obviously the ratio should be higher than 1.


Times-interest-earned ratio

Earnings before interest and tax, divided by interest payments.


Times Interest Earned Ratio

A measure of how well a company is able to meet its interest
payments based on the cash generated by its operations. It is
calculated by dividing the earnings before interest and taxes by the
total interest charges incurred by the firm.


transfer time

the time consumed by moving products or
components from one place to another


Turnaround time

time available or needed to effect a turnaround.


Cash flow

In investments, it represents earnings before depreciation , amortization and non-cash charges.
Sometimes called cash earnings. Cash flow from operations (called funds from operations ) by real estate and
other investment trusts is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.


enterprise resource planning (ERP) system

a packaged software program that allows a company to
(1) automate and integrate the majority of its business processes,
(2) share common data and practices across the entire enterprise, and
(3) produce and access information in a realtime environment


Index

A series of numbers measuring percentage changes over time from a base period. The index number for the base period is by convention set equal to 100.
Indexing
Linking money payments to a price index to hold the real value of those money payments constant.


Lease (Credit Insurance)

Contract granting use of real estate, equipment or other fixed assets for a specified period of time in exchange for payment. The owner or a leased property is the lessor and the user the lessee.


Leasing

Contract granting use of real estate, equipment, or other fixed assets for a specified time in exchange for payment, usually in the form of rent. The owner of the leased property is called the lessor, the user the lessee.
See Also:
* Capital Lease
* Operating Lease
* Sale and Leaseback


Mortgage Insurance

Commonly sold in the form of reducing term life insurance by lending institutions, this is life insurance with a death benefit reducing to zero over a specific period of time, usually 20 to 25 years. In most instances, the cost of coverage remains level, while the death benefit continues to decline. Re-stated, the cost of this kind of insurance is actually increasing since less death benefit is paid as the outstanding mortgage balance decreases while the cost remains the same. Lending institutions are the most popular sources for this kind of coverage because it is usually sold during the purchase of a new mortgage. The untrained institution mortgage sales person often gives the impression that this is the only place mortgage insurance can be purchased but it is more efficiently purchased at a lower cost and with more flexibility, directly from traditional life insurance companies. No matter where it is purchased, the reducing term insurance death benefit reduces over a set period of years. Most consumers are up-sizing their residences, not down-sizing, so it is likely that more coverage is required as years pass, rather than less coverage.
The cost of mortgage lender's insurance group coverage is based on a blended non-smoker/smoker rate, not having any advantage to either male or female. Mortgage lender's group insurance certificate specifies that it [the lender] is the sole beneficiary entitled to receive the death benefit. Mortgage lender's group insurance is not portable and is not guaranteed. Generally speaking, your coverage is void if you do not occupy the house for a period of time, rent the home, fall into arrears on the mortgage, and there are a few others which vary by institution. If, for example, you sell your home and buy another, your current mortgage insurance coverage ends and you will have to qualify for new coverage when you purchase your next home. Maybe you won't be able to qualify. Not being guaranteed means that it is possible for the lending institution's group insurance carrier to cancel all policy holder's coverages if they are experiencing too many death benefit claims.
Mortgage insurance purchased from a life insurance company, is priced, based on gender, smoking status, health and lifestyle of the purchaser. Once obtained, it is a unilateral contract in your favour, which cannot be cancelled by the insurance company unless you say so or unless you stop paying for it. It pays upon the death of the life insured to any "named beneficiary" you choose, tax free. If, instead of reducing term life insurance, you have purchased enough level or increasing life insurance coverage based on your projection of future need, you can buy as many new homes in the future as you want and you won't have to worry about coverage you might loose by renewing or increasing your mortgage.
It is worth mentioning mortgage creditor protection insurance since it is many times mistakenly referred to simply as mortgage insurance. If a home buyer has a limited amount of down payment towards a substantial home purchase price, he/she may qualify for a high ratio mortgage on a home purchase if a lump sum fee is paid for mortgage creditor protection insurance. The only Canadian mortgage lenders currently known to offer this option through the distribution system of banks and trust companies, are General Electric Capital [GE Capital] and Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation [CMHC]. The lump sum fee is mandatory when the mortgage is more than 75% of the value of the property being purchased. The lump sum fee is usually added onto the mortgage. It's important to realize that the only beneficiary of this type of coverage is the morgage lender, which is the bank or trust company through which the buyer arranged their mortgage. If the buyer for some reason defaults on this kind of high ratio mortgage and the value of the property has dropped since being purchased, the mortgage creditor protection insurance makes certain that the bank or trust company gets paid. However, this is not the end of the story, because whatever the difference is, between the disposition value of the property and whatever sum of unpaid mortgage money is outstanding to either GE Capital or CMHC will be the subject of collection procedures against the defaulting home buyer. Therefore, one should conclude that this kind of insurance offers protection only to the bank or trust company and absolutely no protection to the home buyer.


Non-Smoker Discount

In October 1996 it was announced in the international news that scientists had finally located the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. In the early 1980's, some Canadian Life Insurance Companies had already started recognizing that non-smokers had a better life expectancy than smokers so commenced offering premium discounts for life insurance to new applicants who have been non-smokers for at least 12 months before applying for coverage. Today, most life insurance companies offer these discounts.
Savings to non-smokers can be up to 50% of regular premium depending on age and insurance company. Most life insurance companies offering non-smoker rates insist that the person applying for coverage have abstained from any form of tobacco or marijuana for at least twelve months, some companies insist on longer periods, up to 15 years.
Tobacco use is generally considered to be cigarettes, cigarillos, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, nicorette gum, snuff, marijuana and nicotine patches. In addition to these, if anyone tests positive to cotinine, a by-product of nicotine, they are also considered a smoker. There are some insurance companies which allow moderate or occasional use of cigars, cigarillos or pipes as acceptable for non-smoker status. Experienced brokers are aware of how to locate these insurance companies and save you money.
Special care should be taken by applicants for coverage who qualify for non-smoker rates by virtue of having ceased a smoking habit for the required period before application, but for some reason, fall back into the smoking habit some time after obtaining coverage. While contractually, the insurance company is still bound to a non-smoking rate, the facts of the applicant's smoking hiatus may become vague over the subsequent years of the resumed habit and at time of death claim, the insurance company may decide to contest the original non-smoking declaration. The consequence is not simply a need to back pay the difference between non-smoker and smoker rates but in reality the possibility of denial of death claim. It is therefore, important to advise the servicing broker as well as the insurance company of the change in smoking habits to make certain that sufficient evidence is documented to track the non-smoking period.


Operating cycle

The average time intervening between the acquisition of materials or services and the final
cash realization from those acquisitions.


Performance measurement

The calculation of the return realized by a money manager over some time interval.


Workout period

realignment period of a temporary misaligned yield relationship that sometimes occurs in
fixed income markets.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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