Financial Terms
Real assets

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Definition of Real assets

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Real assets

Identifiable assets, such as buildings, equipment, patents, and trademarks, as distinguished from a
financial obligation.

real assets

assets used to produce goods and services.

Related Terms:

Realizable Revenue A revenue transaction where assets received in exchange for goods and

services are readily convertible into known amounts of cash or claims to cash.

capital budgeting decision

Decision as to which real assets the firm should acquire.

Financial assets

Claims on real assets.

financial assets

Claims to the income generated by real assets. Also called securities.

financing decision

Decision as to how to raise the money to pay for investments in real assets.

real options

Options embedded in real assets.

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Tangible asset

An asset whose value depends on particular physical properties. These i nclude reproducible
assets such as buildings or machinery and non-reproducible assets such as land, a mine, or a work of art. Also
called real assets. Related: Intangible asset

Acquisition of assets

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.

After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs


A firm's productive resources.


Anything of value that a company owns.


Things that the business owns.


Items owned by the company or expenses that have been paid for but have not been used up.

Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.

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Current assets

Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that
could be converted to cash in less than 1 year.

Current assets

Cash, things that will be converted into cash within a year (such as accounts receivable), and inventory.

Current assets

Amounts receivable by the business within a period of 12 months, including bank, debtors, inventory and prepayments.

current assets

Current refers to cash and those assets that will be turned
into cash in the short run. Five types of assets are classified as current:
cash, short-term marketable investments, accounts receivable, inventories,
and prepaid expenses—and they are generally listed in this order in
the balance sheet.

Current Assets

Cash and other company assets that can be readily turned into cash within one year.

Exchange of assets

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.

Exchange Rate, Real

The nominal exchange rate corrected for price level differences.

Fixed assets

Things that the business owns and are part of the business infrastructure – fixed assets may be
tangible or intangible.

fixed assets

An informal term that refers to the variety of long-term operating
resources used by a business in its operations—including real
estate, machinery, equipment, tools, vehicles, office furniture, computers,
and so on. In balance sheets, these assets are typically labeled property,
plant, and equipment. The term fixed assets captures the idea that the
assets are relatively fixed in place and are not held for sale in the normal
course of business. The cost of fixed assets, except land, is depreciated,
which means the cost is allocated over the estimated useful lives of the

Fixed Assets

Land, buildings, plant, equipment, and other assets acquired for carrying on the business of a company with a life exceeding one year. Normally expressed in financial accounts at cost, less accumulated depreciation.

Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio

A measure of the utilization of a company's fixed assets to
generate sales. It is calculated by dividing the sales for the period
by the book value of the net fixed assets.

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Intangible assets

assets owned by the company that do not possess physical substance; they usually take the form of rights and privileges such as patents, copyrights, and franchises.

Intangible fixed assets

Non-physical assets, e.g. customer goodwill or intellectual property (patents and trademarks).

Interest Rate, Real

Nominal interest rate less expected inflation.

Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.

Longer-Term Fixed Assets

assets having a useful life greater than one year but the duration of the 'long term' will vary with the context in which the term is applied.

Net assets

The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized longterm
liabilities on the other hand.

Net Realizable Value

Selling price of an asset less expenses of bringing the asset into a saleable state and expenses of the sale.

net realizable value approach

a method of accounting for by-products or scrap that requires that the net realizable value of these products be treated as a reduction in the cost of the primary products; primary product cost may be reduced by decreasing either
(1) cost of goods sold when the joint products are sold or
(2) the joint process cost allocated to the joint products

net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products that uses, as the proration base, sales value at split-off minus all costs necessary
to prepare and dispose of the products; it requires
that all joint products be salable at the split-off point

Net realizeable value

The expected revenue to be gained from the sale of an item or
service, less the costs of the sale transaction.

Non-reproducible assets

A tangible asset with unique physical properties, like a parcel of land, a mine, or a
work of art.

Other assets

A cluster of accounts that are listed after fixed assets on the balance sheet,
and which contain minor assets that cannot be reasonably fit into any of the other
main asset categories.

Other current assets

Value of non-cash assets, including prepaid expenses and accounts receivable, due
within 1 year.

Personal Assets

assets, the title of which are held personally rather than in the name of some other legal entity.

Preferred Stock Stock that has a claim on assets and dividends of a corporation that are prior

to that of common stock. Preferred stock typically does not carry the right to vote.

Publicly traded assets

assets that can be traded in a public market, such as the stock market.

Quick assets

Current assets minus inventories.


The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar of assets. The formula is:
(Net income) / (Total assets)


Measured in base year, or constant, dollars. Contrast with nominal.

Real Actions (Earnings) Management

Involves operational steps and not simply acceleration
or delay in the recognition of revenue or expenses. The delay or acceleration of shipment would
be an example.

Real Business Cycle Theory

Belief that business cycles arise from real shocks to the economy, such as technology advances and natural resource discoveries, and have little to do with monetary policy.

Real capital

Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial
securities, and real estate.

Real cash flow

A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash
flow is given.

Real Exchange Rate

Exchange rate adjusted for relative price levels.

Real exchange rates

Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.

Real GDP

GDP expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing nominal GDP by a price index.

Real Income

Income expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing nominal income by a price index.

Real interest rate

The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms
of constant-purchasing-power dollars. Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate
adjusted for inflation.

Real Interest Rate

The rate of interest paid on an investment adjusted for inflation

real interest rate

Rate at which the purchasing power of an investment increases.

Real market

The bid and offer prices at which a dealer could do "size." Quotes in the brokers market may
reflect not the real market, but pictures painted by dealers playing trading games.

real microprofit center

a center whose output has a market value

Real Money Supply

Money supply expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing the money supply by a price index.

Real Rate of Interest

See interest rate, real.

Real time

A real time stock or bond quote is one that states a security's most recent offer to sell or bid (buy).
A delayed quote shows the same bid and ask prices 15 minutes and sometimes 20 minutes after a trade takes place.

real value of $1

Purchasing power–adjusted value of a dollar.

Real Wage

Wage expressed in base-year dollars, calculated by dividing the money wage by a price index.

Realized compound yield

Yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest
rate at the time of their receipt and rolled over until the bond matures.

Realized Gains and Losses

Increases or decreases in the fair value of an asset or a liability that
are realized through sale or settlement.

Realized return

The return that is actually earned over a given time period.

Realized Revenue

A revenue transaction where goods and services are exchanged for cash or
claims to cash.

realized value approach

a method of accounting for byproducts or scrap that does not recognize any value for these products until they are sold; the value recognized
upon sale can be treated as other revenue or other income

REIT (real estate investment trust)

real estate investment trust, which is similar to a closed-end mutual
fund. REITs invest in real estate or loans secured by real estate and issue shares in such investments.

REMIC (real estate mortgage investment conduit)

A pass-through tax entity that can hold mortgages
secured by any type of real property and issue multiple classes of ownership interests to investors in the form
of pass-through certificates, bonds, or other legal forms. A financing vehicle created under the Tax Reform
Act of 1986.

Reproducible assets

A tangible asset with physical properties that can be reproduced, such as a building or

Residual assets

assets that remain after sufficient assets are dedicated to meet all senior debtholder's claims in full.

Return on assets (ROA)

Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months
by total average assets. Result is shown as a percentage. ROA can be decomposed into return on sales (net
income/sales) multiplied by asset utilization (sales/assets).

return on assets (ROA)

Although there is no single uniform practice for
calculating this ratio, generally it equals operating profit (before interest
and income tax) for a year divided by the total assets that are used to
generate the profit. ROA is the key ratio to test whether a business is
earning enough on its assets to cover its cost of capital. ROA is used for
determining financial leverage gain (or loss).

Return on total assets

The ratio of earnings available to common stockholders to total assets.

Return on Total Assets Ratio

A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
assets in the company. It is calculated by dividing the net income
available for distribution to shareholders by the book value of all

Tangible fixed assets

Physical assets that can be seen and touched, e.g. buildings, machinery, vehicles, computers etc.

Total Debt to Total Assets Ratio

See debt ratio


A ratio that shows how well a company could pay its current debts using only its most liquid or “quick” assets. It’s a more pessimistic—but also realistic—measure of safety than the current ratio, because it ignores sluggish, hard-toliquidate current assets like inventory and notes receivable. Here’s the formula:
(Cash + Accounts receivable + Marketable securities) / (Current liabilities)

Aggressive Capitalization Policies

Capitalizing and reporting as assets significant portions of
expenditures, the realization of which require unduly optimistic assumptions.

Asset classes

Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.

Fixed asset

Long-lived property owned by a firm that is used by a firm in the production of its income.
Tangible fixed assets include real estate, plant, and equipment. Intangible fixed assets include patents,
trademarks, and customer recognition.

Inflation Tax

The loss in purchasing power due to inflation eroding the real value of financial assets such as cash.

Lease (Credit Insurance)

Contract granting use of real estate, equipment or other fixed assets for a specified period of time in exchange for payment. The owner or a leased property is the lessor and the user the lessee.


Contract granting use of real estate, equipment, or other fixed assets for a specified time in exchange for payment, usually in the form of rent. The owner of the leased property is called the lessor, the user the lessee.
See Also:
* Capital Lease
* Operating Lease
* Sale and Leaseback

Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

liquidation value

Net proceeds that would be realized by selling the firm’s assets and paying off its creditors.


realigning the proportions of assets in a portfolio as needed.

Valuation Allowance

A contra- or reduction account to deferred tax assets.
The valuation allowance represents that portion of total deferred tax assets that the firm judges is unlikely to be realized. The probability threshold applied in evaluating realization is 50%. That is, if it is more than 50% likely that some or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized, then a valuation allowance must be set off against part or all of the deferred tax asset.







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