Financial Terms Re-entry

# Definition of Re-entry

## Re-entry

This is a provision in some term insurance policies that allow the insured the right to renew the policy at a more favourable rate by providing updated evidence of insurability.

# Related Terms:

## Reversing entry

An entry that is made at the beginning of the current period so that the systems and procedures do not have to be altered to allow for previously accrued items.

the additional value inherent in the control interest as contrasted to a minority interest, which reflects its power of control

## CARs (cumulative abnormal returns)

a measure used in academic finance articles to measure the excess returns an investor would have received over a particular time period if he or she were invested in a particular stock.
This is typically used in control and takeover studies, where stockholders are paid a premium for being taken over. Starting some time period before the takeover (often five days before the first announced bid, but sometimes a longer period), the researchers calculate the actual daily stock returns for the target firm and subtract out the expected market returns (usually calculated using the firmâ€™s beta and applying it to overall market movements during the time period under observation).
The excess actual return over the capital asset pricing model-determined expected return market is called an â€˜â€˜abnormal return.â€™â€™ The cumulation of the daily abnormal returns over the time period under observation is the CAR. The term CAR(-5, 0) means the CAR calculated from five days before the
announcement to the day of announcement. The CAR(-1, 0) is a control premium, although Mergerstat generally uses the stock price five days before announcement rather than one day before announcement as the denominator in its control premium calculation. However, the CAR for any period other than (-1, 0) is not mathematically equivalent to a control premium.

## fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

## Ordinary least squares (OLS)

regression analysis a statistical technique that minimizes the sum of the squared deviations between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables and provides the user
with a y-intercept and x-coefficients, as well as feedback such as R2 (explained
variation/total variation) t-statistics, p-values, etc.

## NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

## PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in todayâ€™s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

## Abnormal returns

Part of the return that is not due to systematic influences (market wide influences). In
other words, abnormal returns are above those predicted by the market movement alone. related: excess
returns.

## Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.

## Accelerated depreciation

Any depreciation method that produces larger deductions for depreciation in the
early years of a project's life. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), which is a depreciation schedule
allowed for tax purposes, is one such example.

## Accounting exposure

The change in the value of a firm's foreign currency denominated accounts due to a
change in exchange rates.

## Accounts receivable

Money owed by customers.

## Accounts receivable turnover

The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
quickly customers pay their bills.

## Accretion (of a discount)

In portfolio accounting, a straight-line accumulation of capital gains on discount
bond in anticipation of receipt of par at maturity.

## Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).

## Acquiree

A firm that is being acquired.

## Acquirer

A firm or individual that is acquiring something.

## Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

## After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

## Aggregation

Process in corporate financial planning whereby the smaller investment proposals of each of the
firm's operational units are added up and in effect treated as a big picture.

Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign
shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. One ADR may
represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's
are "sponsored," the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may
the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. American depositary shares(ADSs) are
a similar form of certification.

## American shares

Securities certificates issued in the U.S. by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign
issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities.

## Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).

## Annual report

Yearly record of a publicly held company's financial condition. It includes a description of the
firm's operations, its balance sheet and income statement. SEC rules require that it be distributed to all
shareholders. A more detailed version is called a 10-K.

## Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.

## Annuity in arrears

An annuity with a first payment on full period hence, rather than immediately.

## Appropriation request

Formal request for funds for capital investment project.

## Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.

## Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.

## Arithmetic mean return

An average of the subperiod returns, calculated by summing the subperiod returns
and dividing by he number of subperiods.

## Asian currency units (ACUs)

Dollar deposits held in Singapore or other Asian centers.

## Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.

## Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.

## Auditor's report

A section of an annual report containing the auditor's opinion about the veracity of the
financial statements.

## Authorized shares

Number of shares authorized for issuance by a firm's corporate charter.

## Autocorrelation

The correlation of a variable with itself over successive time intervals.

## Autoregressive

Using past data to predict future data.

## Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.

## Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.

## Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).

## Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a

## Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.

## Balance sheet exposure

See:accounting exposure.

## Bank wire

A computer message system linking major banks. It is used not for effecting payments, but as a
mechanism to advise the receiving bank of some action that has occurred, e.g. the payment by a customer of
funds into that bank's account.

## Base interest rate

related: Benchmark interest rate.

## Bearer bond

Bonds that are not registered on the books of the issuer. Such bonds are held in physical form by
the owner, who receives interest payments by physically detaching coupons from the bond certificate and
delivering them to the paying agent.

## Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.

## Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").

## Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.

## Blocked currency

A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.

## Bond agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.

## Bond indenture

The contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of
investors.

## Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

## Book-entry securities

The Treasury and federal agencies are moving to a book-entry system in which securities are not represented by engraved pieces of paper but are maintained in computerized records at the
Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep records of the securities they own as well as those they
are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, engraved
securities do exist somewhere in quite a few cases. These securities do not move from holder to holder but are
usually kept in a central clearinghouse or by another agent.

## Break

A rapid and sharp price decline.

## Break-even analysis

An analysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit.

## Break-even lease payment

The lease payment at which a party to a prospective lease is indifferent between
entering and not entering into the lease arrangement.

## Break-even payment rate

The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of
a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon
the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower
than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.

## Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.

## Breakout

A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its previous high price) or drop
below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing
move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator.

## Bretton Woods Agreement

An agreement signed by the original United Nations members in 1944 that
established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the post-World War II international monetary system
of fixed exchange rates.

## British clearers

The large clearing banks that dominate deposit taking and short-term lending in the domestic
sterling market.

## Brokered market

A market where an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers.

A spread strategy in which an investor buys an out-of-the-money put option, financing it by
selling an out-of-the money call option on the same underlying.

A business that has terminated with a loss to creditors.

## Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.

## Capital structure

The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially
the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.

## Capitalized interest

Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.

## Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.

## Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

## Cash flow per common share

Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.

## Cash-flow break-even point

The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing
or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.

## Comparative credit analysis

A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
target debt rating in order to infer an appropriate financial ratio target.

## Compound interest

Interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal.

## Compounding frequency

The number of compounding periods in a year. For example, quarterly
compounding has a compounding frequency of 4.

## Comprehensive due diligence investigation

The investigation of a firm's business in conjunction with a
securities offering to determine whether the firm's business and financial situation and its prospects are
adequately disclosed in the prospectus for the offering.

## Concession agreement

An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the
rules under which the company can operate locally.

## Consensus forecast

The mean of all financial analysts' forecasts for a company.

## Consumer credit

Credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called
retail credit.

## Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)

A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.

The percentage by which the conversion price in a convertible security exceeds the
prevailing common stock price at the time the convertible security is issued.

## Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.

## Convertible preferred stock

Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.

## Core competency

Primary area of competence. Narrowly defined fields or tasks at which a company or
business excels. Primary areas of specialty.

## Correlation

See: Correlation coefficient.

## Correlation coefficient

A standardized statistical measure of the dependence of two random variables,
defined as the covariance divided by the standard deviations of two variables.

## Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.

## Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.

## Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for
dollars.

## Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. related: naked strategies

## Covered Put

A put option position in which the option writer also is short the corresponding stock or has
deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise of the option. This limits the
option writer's risk because money or stock is already set aside. In the event that the holder of the put option
decides to exercise the option, the writer's risk is more limited than it would be on an uncovered or naked put
option.

## Credible signal

A signal that provides accurate information; a signal that can be distinguish among senders.

Money loaned.

## Credit analysis

The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
ability of the issuer to live up to its future contractual obligations. related: default risk