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Definition of Quantos

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Quantos

Currency options with a guaranteed exchange rate that enable buyers who like the asset, German
bonds for example, but not the asset's pricing currency, to arrange to be paid in a different currency for a fee.



Related Terms:

discount rate

the rate of return on investment that would be required by a prudent investor to invest in an asset with a specific level risk. Also, a rate of return used to convert a monetary sum, payable or receivable in the future, into present value.


Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Accelerated depreciation

Any depreciation method that produces larger deductions for depreciation in the
early years of a project's life. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), which is a depreciation schedule
allowed for tax purposes, is one such example.


Acquisition of assets

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.


Active portfolio strategy

A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy



Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


Administrative pricing rules

IRS rules used to allocate income on export sales to a foreign sales corporation.


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After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.


All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.


American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.


Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).


Annual percentage rate (APR)

The periodic rate times the number of periods in a year. For example, a 5%
quarterly return has an APR of 20%.


Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)

An alternative model to the capital asset pricing model developed by
Stephen Ross and based purely on arbitrage arguments.


Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.


Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.


Asian currency units (ACUs)

Dollar deposits held in Singapore or other Asian centers.


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Asset

Any possession that has value in an exchange.


Asset/equity ratio

The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.



Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.


Asset activity ratios

Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.


Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.


Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


Asset-based financing

Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
cash flow from a particular asset or set of assets for a return on, and the return of, their financing.


Asset classes

Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.


Asset-coverage test

A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
debt does not fall below a specified minimum.


Asset for asset swap

Creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another
defaulting borrower.


Asset pricing model

A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.


Asset substitution

A firm's investing in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected.



Asset substitution problem

Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
assets and expropriate value from the debtholders.


Asset swap

An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to
provide a better match with its iabilities.


Asset turnover

The ratio of net sales to total assets.


Asset pricing model

A model, such as the Capital asset pricing Model (CAPM), that determines the required
rate of return on a particular asset.


Assets

A firm's productive resources.


Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.


Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.


Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.


Average tax rate

Taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.


Back fee

The fee paid on the extension date if the buyer wishes to continue the option.


Barbell strategy

A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
at two extremes.


Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.


Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.


Basic business strategies

Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.


Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.


Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").


Bill of exchange

General term for a document demanding payment.


Binomial option pricing model

An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.


Black-Scholes option-pricing model

A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses
the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the standard deviation
of the stock return.


Blocked currency

A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.


Brady bonds

bonds issued by emerging countries under a debt reduction plan.


Break-even payment rate

The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of
a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon
the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower
than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.


Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.


Broker loan rate

Related: Call money rate.


Bullet strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
concentrated at one point on the yield curve.


Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.


Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary
functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, collect and disseminate market information,
maintain a clearing mechanism and enforce trading rules.


Collateral trust bonds

A bond in which the issuer (often a holding company) grants investors a lien on
stocks, notes, bonds, or other financial asset as security. Compare mortgage bond.


Combination strategy

A strategy in which a put and with the same strike price and expiration are either both
bought or both sold. Related: Straddle


Commitment fee

A fee paid to a commercial bank in return for its legal commitment to lend funds that have
not yet been advanced.


Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)

The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity
exchange, Inc. (COMEX), the New York Mercantile exchange (NYMEX), the New York Cotton exchange,
the Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa exchange (CSC), and the New York futures exchange (NYFE). common size
statement A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of
analyzing trends and the changing relationship between financial statement items. For example, all items in
each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales.


Conglomerate

A firm engaged in two or more unrelated businesses.


Conglomerate merger

A merger involving two or more firms that are in unrelated businesses.


Convertible bonds

bonds that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.


Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.


Corporate acquisition

The acquisition of one firm by anther firm.


Corporate bonds

Debt obligations issued by corporations.


Corporate charter

A legal document creating a corporation.


Corporate finance

One of the three areas of the discipline of finance. It deals with the operation of the firm
(both the investment decision and the financing decision) from that firm's point of view.


Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.


Corporate financial planning

Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.


Corporate processing float

The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer
payments.


Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.


Corporate taxable equivalent

rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.


Cost company arrangement

arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Coupon rate

In bonds, notes or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually
paid twice a year.


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies


Crediting rate

The interest rate offered on an investment type insurance policy.


Cross rates

The exchange rate between two currencies expressed as the ratio of two foreign exchange rates
that are both expressed in terms of a third currency.


Crossover rate

The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value.


Currency

Money.


Currency arbitrage

Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by
buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market.


Currency basket

The value of a portfolio of specific amounts of individual currencies, used as the basis for
setting the market value of another currency. It is also referred to as a currency cocktail.


Currency future

A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency.


Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.


Currency risk

Related: exchange rate risk


Currency risk sharing

An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with
the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying
transaction.


Currency selection

asset allocation in which the investor chooses among investments denominated in
different currencies.


Currency swap

An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency
for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency.


Current assets

Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that
could be converted to cash in less than 1 year.


Current rate method

Under this currency translation method, all foreign currency balance-sheet and income
statement items are translated at the current exchange rate.


Cushion bonds

High-coupon bonds that sell at only at a moderate premium because they are callable at a
price below that at which a comparable non-callable bond would sell. Cushion bonds offer considerable
downside protection in a falling market.


Custodial fees Fees

charged by an institution that holds securities in safekeeping for an investor.


Dealer options

Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed
securities dealers.


Dedication strategy

Refers to multi-period cash flow matching.


Delivery options

The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality
option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options make the buyer uncertain of which
Treasury Bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered.


Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency



Differential disclosure

The practice of reporting conflicting or markedly different information in official
corporate statements including annual and quarterly reports and the 10-Ks and 10-Qs.


Differential swap

Swap between two LIBO rates of interest, e.g. yen LIBOR for dollar LIBOR. Payments are
in one currency.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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