Financial Terms
net income (also called the bottom line, earnings, net earnings, and net

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Definition of net income (also called the bottom line, earnings, net earnings, and net

Net Income (also Called The Bottom Line, Earnings, Net Earnings, And Net Image 1

net income (also called the bottom line, earnings, net earnings, and net

operating earnings)
This key figure equals sales revenue for a period
less all expenses for the period; also, any extraordinary gains and losses
for the period are included in this final profit figure. Everything is taken
into account to arrive at net income, which is popularly called the bottom
line. net income is clearly the single most important number in business
financial reports.

Related Terms:

NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

Accounting earnings

earnings of a firm as reported on its income statement.

Bank line

line of credit granted by a bank to a customer.

Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.

Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.

Cash flow time-line

line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

Characteristic line

The market model applied to a single security. The slope of the line is a security's beta.

Net Income (also Called The Bottom Line, Earnings, Net Earnings, And Net Image 2

Demand line of credit

A bank line of credit that enables a customer to borrow on a daily or on-demand basis.


net income for the company during the period.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

Earnings per share (EPS)

EPS, as it is called, is a company's profit divided by its number of outstanding
shares. If a company earned $2 million in one year had 2 million shares of stock outstanding, its EPS would
be $1 per share. The company often uses a weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting term.

Earnings retention ratio

Plowback rate.

Earnings surprises

Positive or negative differences from the consensus forecast of earnings by institutions
such as First Call or IBES. Negative earnings surprises generally have a greater adverse affect on stock prices
than the reciprocal positive earnings surprise on stock prices.

Earnings yield

The ratio of earnings per share after allowing for tax and interest payments on fixed interest
debt, to the current share price. The inverse of the price/earnings ratio. It's the Total Twelve Months earnings
divided by number of outstanding shares, divided by the recent price, multiplied by 100. The end result is
shown in percentage.

Economic earnings

The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in
the firm's productive capacity.

Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.

Net Income (also Called The Bottom Line, Earnings, Net Earnings, And Net Image 3

Euro lines

lines of credit granted by banks (foreign or foreign branches of U.S. banks) for Eurocurrencies.

European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.

Exposure netting

Offsetting exposures in one currency with exposures in the same or another currency,
where exchange rates are expected to move in such a way that losses or gains on the first exposed position
should be offset by gains or losses on the second currency exposure.

Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

Fixed-income equivalent

also called a busted convertible, a convertible security that is trading like a straight
security because the optioned common stock is trading low.

Fixed-income instruments

Assets that pay a fixed-dollar amount, such as bonds and preferred stock.

Fixed-income market

The market for trading bonds and preferred stock.

Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.

Fully diluted earnings per shares

earnings per share expressed as if all outstanding convertible securities
and warrants have been exercised.

Income beneficiary

One who receives income from a trust.

Income bond

A bond on which the payment of interest is contingent on sufficient earnings. These bonds are
commonly used during the reorganization of a failed or failing business.

Net Income (also Called The Bottom Line, Earnings, Net Earnings, And Net Image 4

Income fund

A mutual fund providing for liberal current income from investments.

Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.

Income stock

Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.

International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment

International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).

Investment income

The revenue from a portfolio of invested assets.
Investment management also called portfolio management and money management, the process of
managing money.

Investment product line (IPML)

The line of required returns for investment projects as a function of beta
(nondiversifiable risk).

Line of credit

An informal arrangement between a bank and a customer establishing a maximum loan
balance that the bank will permit the borrower to maintain.

Linear programming

Technique for finding the maximum value of some equation subject to stated linear constraints.

Linear regression

A statistical technique for fitting a straight line to a set of data points.

Log-linear least-squares method

A statistical technique for fitting a curve to a set of data points. One of the
variables is transformed by taking its logarithm, and then a straight line is fitted to the transformed set of data

Low price-earnings ratio effect

The tendency of portfolios of stocks with a low price-earnings ratio to
outperform portfolios consisting of stocks with a high price-earnings ratio.

Line of credit

An informal arrangement between a bank and a customer establishing a maximum loan
balance that the bank will permit the borrower to maintain.

Monetary gold

Gold held by governmental authorities as a financial asset.

Monetary policy

Actions taken by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to influence the
money supply or interest rates.

Monetary / non-monetary method

Under this translation method, monetary items (e.g. cash, accounts
payable and receivable, and long-term debt) are translated at the current rate while non-monetary items (e.g.
inventory, fixed assets, and long-term investments) are translated at historical rates.

Monthly income preferred security (MIP)

Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven.
The subsidiary relends the money to the parent.

Mortgage pipeline

The period from the taking of applications from prospective mortgage borrowers to the
marketing of the loans.

Mortgage-pipeline risk

The risk associated with taking applications from prospective mortgage borrowers
who may opt to decline to accept a quoted mortgage rate within a certain grace period.

Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

Net advantage of refunding

The net present value of the savings from a refunding.

Net advantage to leasing

The net present value of entering into a lease financing arrangement rather than
borrowing the necessary funds and buying the asset.

Net advantage to merging

The difference in total post- and pre-merger market value minus the cost of the merger.

Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.

Net assets

The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized longterm
liabilities on the other hand.

Net benefit to leverage factor

A linear approximation of a factor, T*, that enables one to operationalize the
total impact of leverage on firm value in the capital market imperfections view of capital structure.

Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.

Net cash balance

Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.

Net change

This is the difference between a day's last trade and the previous day's last trade.

Net errors and omissions

In balance of payments accounting, net errors and omissions record the statistical
discrepancies that arise in gathering balance of payments data.

Net financing cost

also called the cost of carry or, simply, carry, the difference between the cost of financing
the purchase of an asset and the asset's cash yield. Positive carry means that the yield earned is greater than
the financing cost; negative carry means that the financing cost exceeds the yield earned.

Net float

Sum of disbursement float and collection float.

Net income

The company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business,
depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses.

Net investment

Gross, or total, investment minus depreciation.

Net lease

A lease arrangement under which the lessee is responsible for all property taxes, maintenance
expenses, insurance, and other costs associated with keeping the asset in good working condition.

Net operating losses

Losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.

Net operating margin

The ratio of net operating income to net sales.

Net period

The period of time between the end of the discount period and the date payment is due.

Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.

Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.

Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

Net profit margin

net income divided by sales; the amount of each sales dollar left over after all expenses
have been paid.

Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.

Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.

Net worth

Common stockholders' equity which consists of common stock, surplus, and retained earnings.


Reducing transfers of funds between subsidiaries or separate companies to a net amount.

Netting out

To get or bring in as a net; to clear as profit.

Old-line factoring

Factoring arrangement that provides collection, insurance, and finance for accounts receivable.

Payments netting

Reducing fund transfers between affiliates to only a netted amount. netting can be done on
a bilateral basis (between pairs of affiliates), or on a multi-lateral basis (taking all affiliates together).

Price/earnings ratio (PE ratio)

Shows the "multiple" of earnings at which a stock sells. Determined by dividing current
stock price by current earnings per share (adjusted for stock splits). earnings per share for the P/E ratio is
determined by dividing earnings for past 12 months by the number of common shares outstanding. Higher
"multiple" means investors have higher expectations for future growth, and have bid up the stock's price.

Retained earnings

Accounting earnings that are retained by the firm for reinvestment in its operations;
earnings that are not paid out as dividends.

Revolving line of credit

A bank line of credit on which the customer pays a commitment fee and can take
down and repay funds according to his needs. Normally the line involves a firm commitment from the bank
for a period of several years.

Safety-net return

The minimum available return that will trigger an immunization strategy in a contingent
immunization strategy.

Security characteristic line

A plot of the excess return on a security over the risk-free rate as a function of
the excess return on the market.

Security market line

line representing the relationship between expected return and market risk.
Security market plane A plane that shows the equilibrium between expected return and the beta coefficient
of more than one factor.
Security selection
See: security selection decision.

SIMEX (Singapore International Monetary Exchange)

A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.

Simple linear regression

A regression analysis between only two variables, one dependent and the other explanatory.

Simple linear trend model

An extrapolative statistical model that asserts that earnings have a base level and
grow at a constant amount each period.

Spread income

also called margin income, the difference between income and cost. For a depository
institution, the difference between the assets it invests in (loans and securities) and the cost of its funds
(deposits and other sources).

Straight line depreciation

An equal dollar amount of depreciation in each accounting period.

Swingline facility

Bank borrowing facility to provide finance while the firm replaces U.S. commercial paper
with eurocommercial paper.

Taxable income

Gross income less a set of deductions.

Underwriting income

For an insurance company, the difference between the premiums earned and the costs
of settling claims.

W-type bottom

A double bottom where the price or indicator chart has the appearance of a W.
See: technical analysis.

Earnings per share of common stock

How much profit a company made on each share of common stock this year.


An accounting statement that summarizes information about a company in the following format:
net Sales
– Cost of goods sold
Gross profit
– Operating expenses
earnings before income tax
– income tax
= net income or (net loss)
Formally called a “consolidated earnings statement,” it covers a period of time such as a quarter or a year.


What the business paid to the IRS.


The profit a company makes after cost of goods sold, expenses, and taxes are subtracted from net sales.

NET SALES (revenue)

The amount sold after customers’ returns, sales discounts, and other allowances are taken away from
gross sales. (Companies usually just show the net sales amount on their income statements, omitting returns, allowances, and the like.)


A ratio that shows how much net income (profit) a company made on each dollar of net sales. Here’s the formula:
(net income) / (net sales)


A ratio that shows how much a company had to collect in net sales to make a dollar of profit. Figure it this way:
(net sales) / (net income)







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