Definition of Lend
To provide money temporarily on the condition that it or its equivalent will be returned, often with an
The reintroduction of a faulty product into a process production flow by
adding it back in small increments.
1Copied with permission from Appendix B of Bragg, Inventory Best Practices, John Wiley
& Sons, 2004.
List of new issues scheduled to come to market shortly.
The tendency of stocks to perform differently at different times, including such anomalies as
the January effect, month-of-the-year effect, day-of-the-week effect, and holiday effect.
Individual or firm that extends money to a borrower with the expectation of being repaid, usually with interest. lenders create debt in the form of loans. lenders include financial institutions, leasing companies government lending agencies and automobile dealers.
A course of action adopted by a financial institution to guide and usually determine present and future decisions in the light of given conditions.
The origination of mortgages by processing applications taken directly from prospective borrowers.
This term has two quite different meanings. First, it may
refer to the allocation to expense each period of the total cost of an
intangible asset (such as the cost of a patent purchased from the inventor)
over its useful economic life. In this sense amortization is equivalent
to depreciation, which allocates the cost of a tangible long-term operating
asset (such as a machine) over its useful economic life. Second, amortization
may refer to the gradual paydown of the principal amount of a debt.
Principal refers to the amount borrowed that has to be paid back to the
lender as opposed to interest that has to be paid for use of the principal.
Each period, a business may pay interest and also make a payment on
the principal of the loan, which reduces the principal amount of the loan,
of course. In this situation the loan is amortized, or gradually paid down.
Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
cash flow from a particular asset or set of assets for a return on, and the return of, their financing.
Loans granted usually by a financial institution where the asset being financed constitutes the sole security given to the lender.
A plan by U.S. Treasury Secretary James Baker under which 15 principal middle-income debtor
countries (the Baker 15) would undertake growth-oriented structural reforms, to be supported by increased
financing from the World Bank and continued lending from commercial banks.
A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions
between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a
A secured loan that gives the lender a lien against all the borrower's inventories.
Bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The U.S. government, local
governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor
buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the
loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.
A long-term debt instrument in which the issuer (borrower) is
obligated to pay the investor (lender) a specified amount of
money, usually at specific intervals, and to repay the principal
amount of the loan at maturity. The periodic payments are based
on the rate of interest agreed upon at the time the instrument is
Usually a fixed interest security under which the issuer contracts to pay the lender a fixed principal amount at a stated date in the future, and a series of interest payments, either semi-annually or annually. Interest payments may vary through the life of bond.
Borrower (Credit Insurance)
A consumer who borrows money from a lender.
The large clearing banks that dominate deposit taking and short-term lending in the domestic
Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.
A fee paid to a commercial bank in return for its legal commitment to lend funds that have
not yet been advanced.
Conditional sales contracts
Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
Cost of capital
The blended cost of a company’s currently outstanding debt instruments
and equity, weighted by the comparative proportions of each one. During a capital
budgeting review, the expected return from a capital purchase must exceed this cost
of capital, or else a company will experience a net loss on the transaction.
On your bank statement, 'credit' represents funds that you have deposited into your account. The opposite of a credit is a debit.
However, ‘credit’ also means money that you borrow from a financial lender, like a bank. A credit card, for example, is a card that allows you to access funds which you then have to repay.
A decline in the ability or willingness of banks to lend.
Restriction of loans by lenders so that not all borrowers willing to pay the current interest rate are able to obtain loans.
Conditions under which credit is extended by a lender to a borrower.
lender of money.
Creditor (Credit Insurance)
A lender or lending institution that offers financing and loans to a borrower, for the purpose of acquiring a commodity.
Discounting of Accounts Receivable
Short-term financing in which accounts receivable are used as collateral to secure a loan. The lender does not buy the accounts receivable but simply uses them as collateral for the loan. Also called pledging of accounts receivable.
The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.
Events of default
Contractually specified events that allow lenders to demand immediate repayment of a debt.
Bond whose maturity can be extended at the option of the lender or issuer.
Federal Financing Bank
A federal institution that lends to a wide array of federal credit agencies funds it
obtains by borrowing from the U.S. Treasury.
Federal funds market
The market where banks can borrow or lend reserves, allowing banks temporarily
short of their required reserves to borrow reserves from banks that have excess reserves.
Federal Funds Rate
The interest rate at which banks lend deposits at the Federal Reserve to one another overnight.
Federal Home Loan Banks
The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The
Federal Home Loan Banks play a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve Banks vis-à-vis
member commercial banks.
A feature of a debt or credit agreement that is designed to protect the lender or creditor. It is common to characterize covenants as either positive or negative covenants.
A positive covenant might require that the debtor maintain a minimum amount of working capital.
A negative covenant might limit dividend payments that may be made.
Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.
financial reports and statements
Financial means having to do with
money and economic wealth. Statement means a formal presentation.
Financial reports are printed and a copy is sent to each owner and each
major lender of the business. Most public corporations make their financial
reports available on a web site, so all or part of the financial report
can be downloaded by anyone. Businesses prepare three primary financial
statements: the statement of financial condition, or balance sheet;
the statement of cash flows; and the income statement. These three key
financial statements constitute the core of the periodic financial reports
that are distributed outside a business to its shareowners and lenders.
Financial reports also include footnotes to the financial statements and
much other information. Financial statements are prepared according to
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which are the authoritative
rules that govern the measurement of net income and the reporting
of profit-making activities, financial condition, and cash flows.
Internal financial statements, although based on the same profit
accounting methods, report more information to managers for decision
making and control. Sometimes, financial statements are called simply
A 12 month period over which a company reports on the activities that
appear in its annual financial statements. The 12 month period may conform to the
calendar year, or end on some other date that more closely conforms to a company’s
natural business cycle.
Forward rate agreement (FRA)
Agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate
that is fixed today.
A method for hedging price risk which involves an agreement between a lender and an investor
to sell particular kinds of loans at a specified price and future time.
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)
This important term
refers to the body of authoritative rules for measuring profit and preparing
financial statements that are included in financial reports by a business
to its outside shareowners and lenders. The development of these
guidelines has been evolving for more than 70 years. Congress passed a
law in 1934 that bestowed primary jurisdiction over financial reporting
by publicly owned businesses to the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC). But the SEC has largely left the development of GAAP to the
private sector. Presently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board is
the primary (but not the only) authoritative body that makes pronouncements
on GAAP. One caution: GAAP are like a movable feast. New rules
are issued fairly frequently, old rules are amended from time to time,
and some rules established years ago are discarded on occasion. Professional
accountants have a heck of time keeping up with GAAP, that’s for
sure. Also, new GAAP rules sometimes have the effect of closing the barn
door after the horse has left. Accounting abuses occur, and only then,
after the damage has been done, are new rules issued to prevent such
abuses in the future.
The margin or difference between the actual market value of a security and the value assessed by the
lending side of a transaction (ie. a repo).
Idea that as long as individuals borrow (or lend) on the same terms as the firm, they can
duplicate the affects of corporate leverage on their own. Thus, if levered firms are priced too high, rational
investors will simply borrow on personal accounts to buy shares in unlevered firms.
Agreement between lender and borrower which details specific terms of the bond issuance.
Specifies legal obligations of bond issuer and rights of bondholders.
An insured mortgage protects only the mortgage lender in case you do not make your mortgage payments. This coverage is provided by CMHC [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation] and is required if a person has a high-ratio mortgage. [A mortgage is high-ratio if the amount borrowed is more than 75% of the purchase price or appraised value, whichever is less.]
A charge for the use of money supplied by a lender.
Income that a company receives in the form of interest, usually as the result of keeping money in interest-bearing accounts at financial institutions and the lending of money to other companies.
International Monetary Fund
An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment
The commercial or investment bank with the primary responsibility for organizing syndicated
bank credit or bond issue. The lead manager recruits additional lending or underwriting banks, negotiates
terms of the issue with the issuer, and assesses market conditions.
A lease arrangement under which the lessor borrows a large proportion of the funds needed
to purchase the asset and grants the lender a lien on the assets and a pledge of the lease payments to secure the
A security interest in one or more assets that is granted to lenders in connection with secured debt
Line of Credit
An agreement negotiated between a borrower and a lender which establishes the maximum amount against which a borrower may draw. The agreement also sets out other conditions, such as how and when money borrowed against the line of credit is to be repaid.
Express stipulations included in loan agreements that are designed to monitor
corporate performance and restrict corporate acts, affording added protection to the lender.
Total demand for loans by borrowers equals total supply of loans from lenders. The market,
any market, clears at the equilibrium rate of interest or price.
A British term for a bank that specializes not in lending out its own funds, but in providing
various financial services such as accepting bills arising out of trade, underwriting new issues, and providing
advice on acquisitions, mergers, foreign exchange, portfolio management, etc.
A list of the ingredients required for a blending operation.
Money markets are for borrowing and lending money for three years or less. The securities in
a money market can be U.S.government bonds, treasury bills and commercial paper from banks and
Money market hedge
The use of borrowing and lending transactions in foreign currencies to lock in the
home currency value of a foreign currency transaction.
Monthly income preferred security (MIP)
Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven.
The subsidiary relends the money to the parent.
Debt instrument by which the borrower (mortgagor) gives the lender (mortgagee) a lien on property as security for the repayment of a loan.
Commonly sold in the form of reducing term life insurance by lending institutions, this is life insurance with a death benefit reducing to zero over a specific period of time, usually 20 to 25 years. In most instances, the cost of coverage remains level, while the death benefit continues to decline. Re-stated, the cost of this kind of insurance is actually increasing since less death benefit is paid as the outstanding mortgage balance decreases while the cost remains the same. lending institutions are the most popular sources for this kind of coverage because it is usually sold during the purchase of a new mortgage. The untrained institution mortgage sales person often gives the impression that this is the only place mortgage insurance can be purchased but it is more efficiently purchased at a lower cost and with more flexibility, directly from traditional life insurance companies. No matter where it is purchased, the reducing term insurance death benefit reduces over a set period of years. Most consumers are up-sizing their residences, not down-sizing, so it is likely that more coverage is required as years pass, rather than less coverage.
The cost of mortgage lender's insurance group coverage is based on a blended non-smoker/smoker rate, not having any advantage to either male or female. Mortgage lender's group insurance certificate specifies that it [the lender] is the sole beneficiary entitled to receive the death benefit. Mortgage lender's group insurance is not portable and is not guaranteed. Generally speaking, your coverage is void if you do not occupy the house for a period of time, rent the home, fall into arrears on the mortgage, and there are a few others which vary by institution. If, for example, you sell your home and buy another, your current mortgage insurance coverage ends and you will have to qualify for new coverage when you purchase your next home. Maybe you won't be able to qualify. Not being guaranteed means that it is possible for the lending institution's group insurance carrier to cancel all policy holder's coverages if they are experiencing too many death benefit claims.
Mortgage insurance purchased from a life insurance company, is priced, based on gender, smoking status, health and lifestyle of the purchaser. Once obtained, it is a unilateral contract in your favour, which cannot be cancelled by the insurance company unless you say so or unless you stop paying for it. It pays upon the death of the life insured to any "named beneficiary" you choose, tax free. If, instead of reducing term life insurance, you have purchased enough level or increasing life insurance coverage based on your projection of future need, you can buy as many new homes in the future as you want and you won't have to worry about coverage you might loose by renewing or increasing your mortgage.
It is worth mentioning mortgage creditor protection insurance since it is many times mistakenly referred to simply as mortgage insurance. If a home buyer has a limited amount of down payment towards a substantial home purchase price, he/she may qualify for a high ratio mortgage on a home purchase if a lump sum fee is paid for mortgage creditor protection insurance. The only Canadian mortgage lenders currently known to offer this option through the distribution system of banks and trust companies, are General Electric Capital [GE Capital] and Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation [CMHC]. The lump sum fee is mandatory when the mortgage is more than 75% of the value of the property being purchased. The lump sum fee is usually added onto the mortgage. It's important to realize that the only beneficiary of this type of coverage is the morgage lender, which is the bank or trust company through which the buyer arranged their mortgage. If the buyer for some reason defaults on this kind of high ratio mortgage and the value of the property has dropped since being purchased, the mortgage creditor protection insurance makes certain that the bank or trust company gets paid. However, this is not the end of the story, because whatever the difference is, between the disposition value of the property and whatever sum of unpaid mortgage money is outstanding to either GE Capital or CMHC will be the subject of collection procedures against the defaulting home buyer. Therefore, one should conclude that this kind of insurance offers protection only to the bank or trust company and absolutely no protection to the home buyer.
The lender of a loan secured by property.
Negative Loan Covenants
Loan covenants designed to limit a corporate borrower's behavior
in favor of the lender.
Negative pledge clause
A bond covenant that requires the borrower to grant lenders a lien equivalent to any
liens that may be granted in the future to any other currently unsecured lenders.
A repo with no definite term. The agreement is made on a day-to-day basis and either the
borrower or the lender may choose to terminate. The rate paid is higher than on overnight repo and is subject
to adjustment if rates move.
Perfected first lien
A first lien that is duly recorded with the cognizant governmental body so that the lender
will be able to act on it should the borrower default.
Perfectly competitive financial markets
Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
goods or services. Perfect capital markets are characterized by the following conditions: 1) trading is costless,
and access to the financial markets is free, 2) information about borrowing and lending opportunities is freely
available, 3) there are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices.
Policy asset allocation
A long-term asset allocation method, in which the investor seeks to assess an
appropriate long-term "normal" asset mix that represents an ideal blend of controlled risk and enhanced
The risk that the value of a security (or a portfolio) will decline in the future. Or, a type of
mortgage-pipeline risk created in the production segment when loan terms are set for the borrower in advance
of terms being set for secondary market sale. If the general level of rates rises during the production cycle, the
lender may have to sell his originated loans at a discount.
The interest rate at which banks lend to their best (prime) customers. Much more often than not, a
bank's most creditworthy customers borrow at rates below the prime rate.
A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender has an unusual loan in production or
inventory but does not have a sale commitment at a prearranged price.
A part of the indenture or loan agreement that limits certain actions a company takes
during the term of the loan to protect the lender's interests.
Term describing a type of loan. If a loan is with recourse, the lender has a general claim against the
parent company if the collateral is insufficient to repay the debt.
In the event a person defaults on a loan, recourse is the right of a person to receive payment. Recourse could give the lender the ability to take possession of the borrowers assets.
The length of time given a borrower by a lender to repay a debt and the frequency of principal payments which the borrower has to meet.
Reverse price risk
A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender commits to sell loans to an
investor at rates prevailing at application but sets the note rates when the borrowers close. The lender is thus
exposed to the risk of falling rates.
Revolving credit agreement
A legal commitment wherein a bank promises to lend a customer up to a
specified maximum amount during a specified period.
Collateral offered by a borrower to a lender to secure a loan.
The monetary value placed on security by a lender in determining the extent to which it can make loans against such security.
statement of cash flows
One of the three primary financial statements
that a business includes in the periodic financial reports to its outside
shareowners and lenders. This financial statement summarizes the business’s
cash inflows and outflows for the period according to a threefold
classification: (1) cash flow from operating activities (cash flow from
profit), (2) cash flow from investing activities, and (3) cash flow from
financing activities. Frankly, the typical statement of cash flows is difficult
to read and decipher; it includes too many lines of information and
is fairly technical compared with the typical balance sheet and income
A provision in a bond indenture that restricts the issuer's future borrowing by
subordinating the new lender's claims on the firm to those of the existing bond holders.
An arrangement whereby two companies lend to each other on different terms, e.g. in different
currencies, and/or at different interest rates, fixed or floating.
Customized hybrid instruments created by blending an underlying price on a cash instrument with
the price of a derivative instrument.
Receipt for goods that are to be held in trust for the lender.
A form used to report gross pay and tax deductions for each employee
to the IRS for a calendar year.
A form on which an employee declares the amount of federal tax deductions
to be deducted from his or her pay.
Without the lender having any right to seek payment or seize assets in the event of
nonpayment from anyone other than the party (such as a special-purpose entity) specified in the debt contract.
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