Financial Terms
Just-in-time manufacturing

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Definition of Just-in-time manufacturing

Just-in-time Manufacturing Image 1

Just-in-time manufacturing

The term for several manufacturing innovations that
result in a “pull” method of production, in which each manufacturing workstation
creates just enough product for the immediate needs of the next workstation in the
production process.

Related Terms:

just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production

Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.

Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.

Adjusted Earnings

Net income adjusted to exclude selected nonrecurring and noncash items of reserve, gain, expense, and loss.

Adjusted EBITDA

Conventional earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) revised to exclude the effects of mainly nonrecurring items of revenue or gain and expense or loss.

Adjusted Income from Continuing

Operations Reported income from continuing operations
adjusted to remove nonrecurring items.

Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

Just-in-time Manufacturing Image 2

Adjusting entries

The entries needed at the end of an accounting period to properly state certain account balances.

Break-even time

Related: Premium payback period.

Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

the use of computers to control production processes through numerically
controlled (NC) machines, robots, and automated assembly systems

computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

the integration of two or more flexible manufacturing systems through the use of a host computer and an information networking system

Cumulative-Effect Adjustment

The cumulative, after-tax, prior-year effect of a change in accounting
principle. It is reported as a single line item on the income statement in the year of the
change in accounting principle. The cumulative-effect-type adjustment is the most common accounting
treatment afforded changes in accounting principle.

Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) account

An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains
and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The CTA account is required
under the FASB No. 52 rule.

cycle time

the time between the placement of an order to
the time the goods arrive for usage or are produced by
the company; it is equal to value-added time plus nonvalue-
added time

employee time sheet

a source document that indicates, for each employee, what jobs were worked on during the day and for what amount of time

Just-in-time Manufacturing Image 3

flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

a production system in which a single factory manufactures numerous variations
of products through the use of computer-controlled
focused factory arrangement
an arrangement in which a
vendor (which may be an external party or an internal corporate
division) agrees to provide a limited number of
products according to specifications or to perform a limited
number of unique services to a company that is typically
operating on a just-in-time system

idle time

the amount of time spent in storing inventory or
waiting at a production operation for processing

inspection time

the time taken to perform quality control activities

Inventory adjustment

A transaction used to adjust the book balance of an inventory
record to the amount actually on hand.

judgmental method (of risk adjustment)

an informal method of adjusting for risk that allows the decision maker
to use logic and reason to decide whether a project provides
an acceptable rate of return

Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.

just-in-time (JIT)

a philosophy about when to do something;
the when is “as needed” and the something is a production,
purchasing, or delivery activity

Just-in-time (JIT)

A cluster of manufacturing, design, and delivery practices designed to
continually reduce all types of waste, thereby improving production efficiency.

just-in-time training

a system that maps the skill sets employees
need and delivers the training they need just as they need it

lead time

see cycle time

manufacturing cell

a linear or U-shaped production grouping of workers or machines

manufacturing cycle efficiency (MCE)

a ratio resulting from dividing the actual production time by total lead time;
reflects the proportion of lead time that is value-added

Manufacturing resource planning

An integrated, computerized system for planning
all manufacturing resources.

manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

a fully integrated materials requirement planning system that involves
top management and provides a basis for both strategic
and tactical planning

Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

An expansion of the material requirements planning concept, with additional computer-based capabilities in the areas of
direct labor and machine capacity planning.

Market timer

A money manager who assumes he or she can forecast when the stock market will go up and down.

Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

Option-adjusted spread (OAS)

1) The spread over an issuer's spot rate curve, developed as a measure of
the yield spread that can be used to convert dollar differences between theoretical value and market price.
2) The cost of the implied call embedded in a MBS, defined as additional basis-yield spread. When added to the
base yield spread of an MBS without an operative call produces the option-adjusted spread.


A pay premium of 50 percent of the regular rate of pay that is earned
by employees on all hours worked beyond 40 hours in a standard work week

Price Adjuster

A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting price rather than quantity. Contrast with quantity adjuster.

processing time

the actual time consumed performing the
functions necessary to manufacture a product

Quantity Adjuster

A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting quantity rather than price. Contrast with price adjuster.

Real time

A real time stock or bond quote is one that states a security's most recent offer to sell or bid (buy).
A delayed quote shows the same bid and ask prices 15 minutes and sometimes 20 minutes after a trade takes place.


return Return earned on an asset normalized for the amount of risk associated with that asset.

risk-adjusted discount rate method

a formal method of adjusting for risk in which the decision maker increases the rate used for discounting the future cash flows to compensate for increased risk

Risk-adjusted profitability

A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a
certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.

Seasonal Adjustment

Adjustment to correct measures for changes that happen for seasonal reasons.

service time

the actual time consumed performing the functions
necessary to provide a service

Time Clock

A device used to stamp an employee’s incoming or outgoing time
on either a paper document or an electronic record.

Time decay

Related: theta.

Time deposit

Interest-bearing deposit at a savings institution that has a specific maturity.
Related: certificate of deposit.

Time Deposit

See term deposit.

Time draft

Demand for payment at a stated future date.

Time premium

Also called time value, the amount by which the option price exceeds its intrinsic value. The
value of an option beyond its current exercise value representing the optionholder's control until expiration,
the risk of the underlying asset, and the riskless return.

Time to maturity

The time remaining until a financial contract expires. Also called time until expiration.

Time until expiration

The time remaining until a financial contract expires. Also called time to maturity.

Time value of an option

The portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining
until the expiration date of the option contract, and that the underlying components that determine the value of
the option may change during that time. time value is generally equal to the difference between the premium
and the intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

Time value of money

The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar
received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.

Time-weighted rate of return

Related: Geometric mean return.


A document or electronic record on which an employee records his or
her hours worked during a payroll period.


representation of the amounts and timing of all
cash inflows and outflows; it is used in analyzing cash flow
from a capital project

times interest earned

A ratio that tests the ability of a business to make
interest payments on its debt, which is calculated by dividing annual
earnings before interest and income tax by the interest expense for the
year. There is no particular rule for this ratio, such as 3 or 4 times, but
obviously the ratio should be higher than 1.

Times-interest-earned ratio

Earnings before interest and tax, divided by interest payments.

Times Interest Earned Ratio

A measure of how well a company is able to meet its interest
payments based on the cash generated by its operations. It is
calculated by dividing the earnings before interest and taxes by the
total interest charges incurred by the firm.

transfer time

the time consumed by moving products or
components from one place to another

Turnaround time

time available or needed to effect a turnaround.







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