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just-in-time manufacturing system

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Definition of just-in-time manufacturing system

Just-in-time Manufacturing System Image 1

just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production



Related Terms:

Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Accounting system

A set of accounts that summarize the transactions of a business that have been recorded on source documents.


actual cost system

a valuation method that uses actual direct
material, direct labor, and overhead charges in determining
the cost of Work in Process Inventory


Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.



Adjusted Earnings

Net income adjusted to exclude selected nonrecurring and noncash items of reserve, gain, expense, and loss.


Adjusted EBITDA

Conventional earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) revised to exclude the effects of mainly nonrecurring items of revenue or gain and expense or loss.


Just-in-time Manufacturing System Image 2

Adjusted Income from Continuing

Operations Reported income from continuing operations
adjusted to remove nonrecurring items.


Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.


Adjusting entries

The entries needed at the end of an accounting period to properly state certain account balances.


Automated storage/retrieval system

A racking system using automated systems
to load and unload the racks.


Break-even time

Related: Premium payback period.


business intelligence (BI) system

a formal process for gathering and analyzing information and producing intelligence to meet decision making needs; requires information about
internal processes as well as knowledge, technologies, and competitors


Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.


charge-back system

a system using transfer prices; see transfer
price


Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).


Just-in-time Manufacturing System Image 3

Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.


computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

the use of computers to control production processes through numerically
controlled (NC) machines, robots, and automated assembly systems



computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

the integration of two or more flexible manufacturing systems through the use of a host computer and an information networking system


cost control system

a logical structure of formal and/or informal
activities designed to analyze and evaluate how well
expenditures are managed during a period


cost management system (CMS)

a set of formal methods
developed for planning and controlling an organization’s
cost-generating activities relative to its goals and objectives
cost object anything to which costs attach or are related


Cumulative-Effect Adjustment

The cumulative, after-tax, prior-year effect of a change in accounting
principle. It is reported as a single line item on the income statement in the year of the
change in accounting principle. The cumulative-effect-type adjustment is the most common accounting
treatment afforded changes in accounting principle.


Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) account

An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains
and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The CTA account is required
under the FASB No. 52 rule.


cycle time

the time between the placement of an order to
the time the goods arrive for usage or are produced by
the company; it is equal to value-added time plus nonvalue-
added time


Du Pont system

A breakdown of ROE and ROA into component ratios.


Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.


Electronic Federal Tax Payment Systems (EFTPS)

An electronic funds transfer system used by businesses to remit taxes to the government.


employee time sheet

a source document that indicates, for each employee, what jobs were worked on during the day and for what amount of time



enterprise resource planning (ERP) system

a packaged software program that allows a company to
(1) automate and integrate the majority of its business processes,
(2) share common data and practices across the entire enterprise, and
(3) produce and access information in a realtime environment


Enterprise resource planning system

A computer system used to manage all company
resources in the receipt, completion, and delivery of customer orders.


European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.


Federal Reserve System

The central bank of the U.S., established in 1913, and governed by the Federal
Reserve Board located in Washington, D.C. The system includes 12 Federal Reserve Banks and is authorized
to regulate monetary policy in the U.S. as well as to supervise Federal Reserve member banks, bank holding
companies, international operations of U.S.banks, and U.S.operations of foreign banks.


Federal Reserve System

The central banking authority responsible for monetary policy in the United States.


flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

a production system in which a single factory manufactures numerous variations
of products through the use of computer-controlled
robots
focused factory arrangement
an arrangement in which a
vendor (which may be an external party or an internal corporate
division) agrees to provide a limited number of
products according to specifications or to perform a limited
number of unique services to a company that is typically
operating on a just-in-time system


hybrid costing system

a costing system combining characteristics
of both job order and process costing systems


idle time

the amount of time spent in storing inventory or
waiting at a production operation for processing


Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.


inspection time

the time taken to perform quality control activities


Interac system

Canada's bank machine and electronic debit system. If you use your bank card at a bank machine which displays the Interac symbol (and that bank machine is not your bank's machine), you will be charged a fee.


Inventory adjustment

A transaction used to adjust the book balance of an inventory
record to the amount actually on hand.


job order costing system

a system of product costing used
by an entity that provides limited quantities of products or
services unique to a customer’s needs; focus of recordkeeping
is on individual jobs


judgmental method (of risk adjustment)

an informal method of adjusting for risk that allows the decision maker
to use logic and reason to decide whether a project provides
an acceptable rate of return


Just-in-time inventory systems

systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.


just-in-time (JIT)

a philosophy about when to do something;
the when is “as needed” and the something is a production,
purchasing, or delivery activity


Just-in-time (JIT)

A cluster of manufacturing, design, and delivery practices designed to
continually reduce all types of waste, thereby improving production efficiency.


Just-in-time manufacturing

The term for several manufacturing innovations that
result in a “pull” method of production, in which each manufacturing workstation
creates just enough product for the immediate needs of the next workstation in the
production process.


just-in-time training

a system that maps the skill sets employees
need and delivers the training they need just as they need it


lead time

see cycle time


lock-box system

system whereby customers send payments to a post office box and a local bank collects and processes checks.


MACRS (Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System)

A depreciation method created by the IRS under the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Companies must use it to depreciate all plant and equipment assets installed after December 31, 1986 (for tax purposes).


management control system (MCS)

an information system that helps managers gather information about actual organizational occurrences, make comparisons against plans,
effect changes when they are necessary, and communicate
among appropriate parties; it should serve to guide organizations
in designing and implementing strategies so that
organizational goals and objectives are achieved


management information system (MIS)

a structure of interrelated elements that collects, organizes, and communicates
data to managers so they may plan, control, evaluate
performance, and make decisions; the emphasis of the
MIS is on internal demands for information rather than external
demands; some or all of the MIS may be computerized
for ease of access to information, reliability of input
and processing, and ability to simulate outcomes of
alternative situations


manufacturing cell

a linear or U-shaped production grouping of workers or machines


manufacturing cycle efficiency (MCE)

a ratio resulting from dividing the actual production time by total lead time;
reflects the proportion of lead time that is value-added


Manufacturing resource planning

An integrated, computerized system for planning
all manufacturing resources.


manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

a fully integrated materials requirement planning system that involves
top management and provides a basis for both strategic
and tactical planning


Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

An expansion of the material requirements planning concept, with additional computer-based capabilities in the areas of
direct labor and machine capacity planning.


Market timer

A money manager who assumes he or she can forecast when the stock market will go up and down.


Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS)

Depreciation method that allows higher tax deductions in early years and lower deductions later.


Multirule system

A technical trading strategy that combines mechanical rules, such as the CRISMA
(cumulative volume, relative strength, moving average) Trading system of Pruitt and White.


Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.


Nonsystematic risk

Nonmarket or firm-specific risk factors that can be eliminated by diversification. Also
called unique risk or diversifiable risk. systematic risk refers to risk factors common to the entire economy.


normal cost system

a valuation method that uses actual
costs of direct material and direct labor in conjunction with
a predetermined overhead rate or rates in determining the
cost of Work in Process Inventory


Option-adjusted spread (OAS)

1) The spread over an issuer's spot rate curve, developed as a measure of
the yield spread that can be used to convert dollar differences between theoretical value and market price.
2) The cost of the implied call embedded in a MBS, defined as additional basis-yield spread. When added to the
base yield spread of an MBS without an operative call produces the option-adjusted spread.


Overdraft System

system whereby a depositor may write cheques in excess of the balance, with the bank automatically extending a loan to cover the shortage.


Overtime

A pay premium of 50 percent of the regular rate of pay that is earned
by employees on all hours worked beyond 40 hours in a standard work week


performance management system

a system reflecting the entire package of decisions regarding performance measurement and evaluation


Periodic inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the Inventory account is adjusted for the units sold only at the end of the period.


Perpetual inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the Inventory account is adjusted for the units sold each time a sale is made.


Planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS)

A method of budgeting in which budgets are allocated to projects or programmes rather than to responsibility centres.


PLUS system

A bank machine network outside Canada, across the U.S. and internationally. Customers who use a bank machine with a 'PLUS' symbol may be charged a fee.


Price Adjuster

A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting price rather than quantity. Contrast with quantity adjuster.


Price System

See market mechanism.


process costing system

a method of accumulating and assigning costs to units of production in companies producing large quantities of homogeneous products;
it accumulates costs by cost component in each production department and assigns costs to units using equivalent units of production


processing time

the actual time consumed performing the
functions necessary to manufacture a product


Progressive tax system

A tax system wherein the average tax rate increases for some increases in income but
never decreases with an increase in income.


pull system

a production system dictated by product sales
and demand; a system in which parts are delivered or produced
only as they are needed by the work center for which
they are intended; it requires only minimal storage facilities


Pull system

A materials flow concept in which parts are only withdrawn after a
request is made by the using operation for more parts.


push system

the traditional production system in which
work centers may produce inventory that is not currently
needed because of lead time or economic production/
order requirements; it requires that excess inventory be
stored until needed


Push system

A materials flow concept in which parts are issued based on planned
material requirements.


Quantity Adjuster

A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting quantity rather than price. Contrast with price adjuster.


Real time

A real time stock or bond quote is one that states a security's most recent offer to sell or bid (buy).
A delayed quote shows the same bid and ask prices 15 minutes and sometimes 20 minutes after a trade takes place.


red-line system

an inventory ordering system in which a red
line is painted on the inventory container at a point deemed
to be the reorder point


responsibility accounting system

an accounting information system for successively higher-level managers about the performance of segments or subunits under the control
of each specific manager


Risk-adjusted

return Return earned on an asset normalized for the amount of risk associated with that asset.


risk-adjusted discount rate method

a formal method of adjusting for risk in which the decision maker increases the rate used for discounting the future cash flows to compensate for increased risk


Risk-adjusted profitability

A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a
certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.


Seasonal Adjustment

Adjustment to correct measures for changes that happen for seasonal reasons.


service time

the actual time consumed performing the functions
necessary to provide a service


Split-rate tax system

A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are
distributed as dividends.


standard cost system

a valuation method that uses predetermined
norms for direct material, direct labor, and overhead
to assign costs to the various inventory accounts and
Cost of Goods Sold


Systematic

Common to all businesses.


Systematic risk

Also called undiversifiable risk or market risk, the minimum level of risk that can be
obtained for a portfolio by means of diversification across a large number of randomly chosen assets. Related:
unsystematic risk.


Systematic Risk

The amount of total risk that cannot be eliminated by portfolio
diversification. The risk inherent in the general economy as a
whole. Also known as market risk.


Systematic risk principle

Only the systematic portion of risk matters in large, well-diversified portfolios.
The, expected returns must be related only to systematic risks.


systematic withdrawal plan

Plans offered by mutual fund companies that allow unitholders to receive payment from their investment at regular intervals.


Time Clock

A device used to stamp an employee’s incoming or outgoing time
on either a paper document or an electronic record.


Time decay

Related: theta.


Time deposit

Interest-bearing deposit at a savings institution that has a specific maturity.
Related: certificate of deposit.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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