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Definition of Invoice billing

Invoice Billing Image 1

Invoice billing

billing system in which the invoices are sent off at the time of customer orders are all separate
bills to be paid.



Related Terms:

Invoice

Bill written by a seller of goods or services and submitted to the purchaser.


Invoice date

Usually the date when goods are shipped. Payment dates are set relative to the invoice date.


Invoice price

The price that the buyer of a futures contract must pay the seller when a Treasury Bond is delivered.


Statement billing

billing method in which the sales for a period such as a month (for which a customer also
receives invoices) are collected into a single statement and the customer must pay all of the invoices
represented on the statement.


SPECIFIC INVOICE PRICES

An inventory valuation method in which a company values the items in its ending inventory based
on the specific invoices on which they were bought.



Invoice

A document submitted to a customer, identifying a transaction for which the
customer owes payment to the issuer.


Cost Plus Estimated Earnings in Excess of Billings

Revenue recognized to date under the percentage-of-completion method in excess of amounts billed. Also known as unbilled accounts
receivable.


Invoice Billing Image 1

Announcement date

date on which particular news concerning a given company is announced to the public.
Used in event studies, which researchers use to evaluate the economic impact of events of interest.


Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.


Date of payment

date dividend checks are mailed.


Date of record

date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the recipients of
either dividends or stock rights.


Dates convention

Treating cash flows as being received on exact dates - date 0, date 1, and so forth - as
opposed to the end-of-year convention.


Declaration date

The date on which a firm's directors meet and announce the date and amount of the next
dividend.


Effective date

In an interest rate swap, the date the swap begins accruing interest.


Expiration date

The last day (in the case of American-style) or the only day (in the case of European-style)
on which an option may be exercised. For stock options, this date is the Saturday immediately following the
3rd Friday of the expiration month; however, brokerage firms may set an earlier deadline for notification of
an option holder's intention to exercise. If Friday is a holiday, the last trading day will be the preceding
Thursday.


Extension date

The day on which the first option either expires or is extended.


Invoice Billing Image 2

Ex-dividend date

The first day of trading when the seller, rather than the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to
the most recently announced dividend payment. This date set by the NYSE (and generally followed on other
US exchanges) is currently two business days before the record date. A stock that has gone ex-dividend is
marked with an x in newspaper listings on that date.


Ex-rights date

The date on which a share of common stock begins trading ex-rights.



Fixed-dates

In the Euromarket the standard periods for which Euros are traded (1 month out to a year out) are
referred to as the fixed dates.


Holder-of-record date

The date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the
recipients of either dividends or stock rights. Also called date of record.


Notification date

The day the option is either exercised or expires.


Payment date

The date on which each shareholder of record will be sent a check for the declared dividend.


Projected maturity date

With CMOs, final payment at the end of the estimated cash flow window.


Record date

1) date by which a shareholder must officially own shares in order to be entitled to a dividend.
For example, a firm might declare a dividend on Nov 1, payable Dec 1 to holders of record Nov 15. Once a
trade is executed an investor becomes the "owner of record" on settlement, which currently takes 5 business
days for securities, and one business day for mutual funds. Stocks trade ex-dividend the fourth day before the
record date, since the seller will still be the owner of record and is thus entitled to the dividend.
2) The date that determines who is entitled to payment of principal and interest due to be paid on a security. The record
date for most MBSs is the last day of the month, however the last day on which they may be presented for the
transfer is the last business day of the month. The record date for CMOs and asset-backed securities vary with each issue.


Settlement date

The date on which payment is made to settle a trade. For stocks traded on US exchanges,
settlement is currently 3 business days after the trade. For mutual funds, settlement usually occurs in the
U.S.the day following the trade. In some regional markets, foreign shares may require months to settle.


Trade date

In an interest rate swap, the date that the counterparties commit to the swap. Also, the date on
which a trade occurs. Trades generally settle (are paid for) 1-5 business days after a trade date. With stocks,
settlement is generally 3 business days after the trade.


Value date

In the market for Eurodollar deposits and foreign exchange, value date refers to the delivery date
of funds traded. Normally it is on spot transactions two days after a transaction is agreed upon and the future
date in the case of a forward foreign exchange trade.


Invoice Billing Image 3

Declaration date

The date on which the board of directors has declared a dividend.



Payment date

The date established for the payment of a declared dividend.


Record date

The date used to decide which shareholders will receive the dividend. The owners of the shares at the end of this day are entitled to the dividend.


Coupon dates

The dates when the coupons are paid. Typically a bond pays
coupons annually or semi-annually.


Issue date

The date a security is first offered for sale. That date usually
determines when interest payments, known as coupons, are made.


Maturity date

The date when the issuer returns the final face value of a bond
to the buyer.


Settlement date

The date when money first changes hands; i.e., when a buyer
actually pays for a security. It need not coincide with the issue date.


ex-dividend date

date that determines whether a stockholder is entitled to a dividend payment; anyone holding stock before this date is entitled to a dividend.


Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)

A federal Act
containing the requirements for offering insurance to departed employees.


Maturity Date

date on which a debt is due for payment.


Issue Date

date on which a policy is approved.


Policy Date

date on which the insurance company assumes responsibilities for the obligations outlined in a policy.


Valuation Date

date on which valuation occurs.


PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .


Accumulated Benefit Obligation (ABO)

An approximate measure of the liability of a plan in the event of a
termination at the date the calculation is performed. Related: projected benefit obligation.


American option

An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date.
Related: European option


American-style option

An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and
the expiration date. Most exchange-traded options are American style.


Anticipation

Arrangements whereby customers who pay before the final date may be entitled to deduct a
normal rate of interest.


Back fee

The fee paid on the extension date if the buyer wishes to continue the option.


Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Cash-flow break-even point

The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing
or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.


Certificate of deposit (CD)

Also called a time deposit, this is a certificate issued by a bank or thrift that
indicates a specified sum of money has been deposited. A CD bears a maturity date and a specified interest
rate, and can be issued in any denomination. The duration can be up to five years.


Cheapest to deliver issue

The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a
seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date.


Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.


Completion undertaking

An undertaking either (1) to complete a project such that it meets certain specified
performance criteria on or before a certain specified date or (2) to repay project debt if the completion test
cannot be met.


Confirmation

he written statement that follows any "trade" in the securities markets. Confirmation is issued
immediately after a trade is executed. It spells out settlement date, terms, commission, etc.


Cumulative voting

A system of voting for directors of a corporation in which shareholder's total number of
votes is equal to his number of shares held times the number of candidates.


Deferred call

A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. During this
period the bond is said to be call protected.


Defined contribution plan

A pension plan in which the sponsor is responsible only for making specified
contributions into the plan on behalf of qualifying participants. Related: defined benefit plan
Delayed issuance pool Refers to MBSs that at the time of issuance were collateralized by seasoned loans
originated prior to the MBS pool issue date.


Delivery notice

The written notice given by the seller of his intention to make delivery against an open, short
futures position on a particular date. Related: notice day


Discount factor

Present value of $1 received at a stated future date.


Dollar roll

Similar to the reverse repurchase agreement - a simultaneous agreement to sell a security held in a
portfolio with purchase of a similar security at a future date at an agreed-upon price.


Draft

An unconventional order in writing - signed by a person, usually the exporter, and addressed to the
importer - ordering the importer or the importer's agent to pay, on demand (sight draft) or at a fixed future
date (time draft), the amount specified on its face.


Drop, the

With the dollar roll transaction the difference between the sale price of a mortgage-backed passthrough,
and its re-purchase price on a future date at a predetermined price.


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


End-of-year convention

Treating cash flows as if they occur at the end of a year as opposed to the date
convention. Under the end-of-year convention, the present is time 0, the end of year 1 occurs one year hence,
etc.


European option

Option that may be exercised only at the expiration date. Related: american option.


European-style option

An option contract that can only be exercised on the expiration date.


Expiration cycle

An expiration cycle relates to the dates on which options on a particular security expire. A
given option will be placed in 1 of 3 cycles, the January cycle, the February cycle, or the March cycle. At any
point in time, an option will have contracts with 4 expiration dates outstanding, 2 in near-term months and 2
in far-term months.


Extension

Voluntary arrangements to restructure a firm's debt, under which the payment date is postponed.


Fail

A trade is said to fail if on settlement date either the seller fails to deliver securities in proper form or the
buyer fails to deliver funds in proper form.


Financial future

A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
for the selling price at some specified future date.


Foreign currency translation

The process of restating foreign currency accounts of subsidiaries into the
reporting currency of the parent company in order to prepare consolidated financial statements.


Foreign exchange swap

An agreement to exchange stipulated amounts of one currency for another currency
at one or more future dates.


48-hour rule

The requirement that all pool information, as specified under the PSA Uniform Practices, in a
TBA transaction be communicated by the seller to the buyer before 3 p.m. EST on the business day 48-hours
prior to the agreed upon trade date.


Forward contract

A cash market transaction in which delivery of the commodity is deferred until after the
contract has been made. It is not standardized and is not traded on organized exchanges. Although the
delivery is made in the future, the price is determined at the initial trade date.


Forward delivery

A transaction in which the settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price
agreed upon on the trade date.


Forward exchange rate

Exchange rate fixed today for exchanging currency at some future date.


Forward interest rate

Interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.


Forward rate agreement (FRA)

Agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate
that is fixed today.


Forward trade

A transaction in which the settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price
agreed upon the trade date.


Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.


Futures price

The price at which the parties to a futures contract agree to transact on the settlement date.


Gestation repo

A reverse repurchase agreement between mortgage firms and securities dealers. Under the
agreement, the firm sells federal agency-guaranteed MBS and simultaneously agrees to repurchase them at a
future date at a fixed price.


Guaranteed investment contract (GIC)

A pure investment product in which a life company agrees, for a
single premium, to pay the principal amount of a predetermined annual crediting (interest) rate over the life of
the investment, all of which is paid at the maturity date.


Horizontal spread

The simultaneous purchase and sale of two options that differ only in their exercise date.


Implied repo rate

The rate that a seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering
it at the settlement date. Related: cheapest to deliver issue


Implied volatility

The expected volatility in a stock's return derived from its option price, maturity date,
exercise price, and riskless rate of return, using an option-pricing model such as Black/Scholes.


Last split

After a stock split, the number of shares distributed for each share held and the date of the
distribution.


Limitation on merger, consolidation, or sale

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to
merge or consolidate with another firm.


Liquidation rights

The rights of a firm's securityholders in the event the firm liquidates.


Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.


Market cycle

The period between the 2 latest highs or lows of the S&P 500, showing net performance of a
fund through both an up and a down market. A market cycle is complete when the S&P is 15% below the
highest point or 15% above the lowest point (ending a down market). The dates of the last market cycle are:
12/04/87 to 10/11/90 (low to low).


Maturity

For a bond, the date on which the principal is required to be repaid. In an interest rate swap, the
date that the swap stops accruing interest.


Minimum-variance portfolio

The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
Minority interest An outside ownership interest in a subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for
financial reporting purposes.


Multicurrency clause

Such a clause on a Euro loan permits the borrower to switch from one currency to
another currency on a rollover date.


Nearby futures contract

When several futures contracts are considered, the contract with the closest
settlement date is called the nearby futures contract. The next futures contract is the one that settles just after
the nearby futures contract. The contract farthest away in time from settlement is called the most distant
futures contract.


Net period

The period of time between the end of the discount period and the date payment is due.


Open interest

The total number of derivative contracts traded that not yet been liquidated either by an
offsetting derivative transaction or by delivery. Related: liquidation


Optimal redemption provision

Provision of a bond indenture that governs the issuer's ability to call the
bonds for redemption prior to their scheduled maturity date.


Option

Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a
given date. Investors, not companies, issue options. Investors who purchase call options bet the stock will be
worth more than the price set by the option (the strike price), plus the price they paid for the option itself.
Buyers of put options bet the stock's price will go down below the price set by the option. An option is part of
a class of securities called derivatives, so named because these securities derive their value from the worth of
an underlying investment.


Options contract

A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not
the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a
specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date).


Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.


Overshooting

The tendency of a pool of MBSs to reflect an especially high rate or prepayments the first time
it crosses the threshold for refinancing, especially if two or more years have passed since the date of issue
without the WAC of the pool having crossed the refinancing threshold.


PSA

A prepayment model based on an assumed rate of prepayment each month of the then unpaid principal
balance of a pool of mortgages. PSA is used primarily to derive an implied prepayment speed of new
production loans, a 100% PSA assumes a prepayment rate of 2% per month in the first month following the
date of issue, increasing at 2% per month thereafter until the 30th month. Thereafter, 100% PSA is the same as
6% CPR.


Pairoff

A buy-back to offset and effectively liquidate a prior sale of securities.


Par value

Also called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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