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Definition of Institutional investors
Organizations that invest, including insurance companies, depository institutions,
A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Selling a new issue not by offering it for sale publicly, but by placing it with one of several
The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to
A network of trading desks for the major brokerage firms and institutional investors that
Unemployment due to institutional phenomena such as the degree of labor force unionization, the level of discrimination, and government policies such as unemployment insurance programs, minimum wages, or regulations on business.
Small investors who commit capital for their personal account.
the process of detailing the various repetitive actions that are performed in making a product or
An analysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit.
analysis of the level of sales at which the company breaks even.
An analytical technique for studying the relationships between fixed cost, variable cost, and profits. A breakeven chart graphically depicts the nature of breakeven analysis. The breakeven point represents the volume of sales at which total costs equal total revenues (that is, profits equal zero).
Refers to various techniques and procedures
A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated
The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s performance Presentation Standards Implementation
The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages
A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
an analytical technique that uses statistical
The calculation and comparison of the costs and benefits of a policy or project.
cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the
relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
cost driver analysis
the process of investigating, quantifying,
Cost–volume–profit analysis (CVP)
A method for understanding the relationship between revenue, cost and sales volume.
The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
Procedure to determine the likelihood a customer will pay its bills.
The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
a cost that is distinctly traceable to a particular cost object
A cost that can be clearly associated with specific activities or products.
see variable costing
A costing methodology that only assigns direct labor and material costs
Costs that are readily traceable to particular products or services.
The direct transfer of payroll funds from the company bank account
A system where funds are electronically credited to your account by a financial institution or a payroll service. For example, you can arrange with your employer to have your pay cheques automatically deposited into your no fee bank account.
Direct estimate method
A method of cash budgeting based on detailed estimates of cash receipts and cash
the time spent by individuals who work specifically
Labor that is specifically incurred to create a product.
Lease in which the lessor purchases new equipment from the manufacturer and leases it to the
a readily identifiable part of a product; the cost of such a part
Direct materials cost
The cost of all materials used in a cost object, such as finished goods.
Direct materials mix variance
The variance between the budgeted and actual mixes of
A method of preparing the operating section of the Statement of Cash Flows that uses the company’s actual cash inflows and cash outflows.
a service department cost allocation approach
A format for the operating section of the cash-flow statement that reports actual cash receipts and cash disbursements from operating activities.
Commercial paper sold directly by the issuer to investors.
For foreign exchange, the number of U.S. dollars needed to buy one unit of a foreign currency.
Advertising designed to elicit sales to customers who can be
Direct search market
Buyers and sellers seek each other directly and transact directly.
Direct stock-purchase programs
The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.
Direct write-off method
A method of adjusting accounts receivable to the amount that is expected to be collected by eliminating the account balances of specific nonpaying customers.
A member of a company’s Board of directors.
A statistical process that links the probability of default to a specified set of financial ratios.
A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon, such as the return on a
The examination of failure incidents to identify components
Financial Trend Analysis
Process of analyzing financial statements of a company for any continuing relationship.
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
The acquisition abroad of physical assets such as plant and equipment, with
Security analysis that seeks to detect misvalued securities by an analysis of the firm's
An analysis of returns using total return to assess performance over some investment horizon.
The process of dividing each expense item of a given year by the same expense item in
a process of evaluating changes that
a cost that cannot be traced explicitly to a particular
A cost that is not directly associated with a single activity or event. Such
Costs that are necessary to produce a product/service but are not readily traceable to particular products or services – see overhead.
The cost of any labor that supports the production process, but which is
A method of preparing the operating section of the Statement of Cash Flows that does not use the company’s actual cash inflows and cash outflows, but instead arrives at the net cash flow by taking net income and adjusting it for noncash expenses and the changes from last year in the current assets and current liabilities.
A format for the operating section of the cash-flow statement that
For foreign exchange, the number of units of a foreign currency needed to buy one U.S.$.
Taxes paid by consumers when they buy goods and services. A sales tax is an example.
Interac® Direct Payment
Instead of paying with cash or a credit card, Interac direct Payment allows you to pay for your purchase with a debit card, such as your bank card. The amount of the purchase is electronically debited, or withdrawn, from your bank account (see debit card).
least squares regression analysis
a statistical technique that investigates the association between dependent and independent variables; it determines the line of "best fit" for a set of observations by minimizing the sum of the squares
Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes.
Multiple-discriminant analysis (MDA)
Statistical technique for distinguishing between two groups on the
a method of ranking the causes of variation
The 80:20 ratio that states that 20% of the variables included in an
Performance attribution analysis
The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain
The evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining
the process of determining the degree
performance management system
a system reflecting the entire package of decisions regarding performance measurement and evaluation
The calculation of the return realized by a money manager over some time interval.
Shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings
A bank depositing Eurodollars with (selling Eurodollars to) another bank is often said to be
pre-authorized direct deposit
A system where funds are electronically credited to your account by a financial institution or a payroll service.
The sale of a bond or other security directly to a limited number of investors.
Sale of securities to a limited number of investors without a public offering.
Sale of stocks, bonds or other investments directly to an institutional investor or individuals. Prior registration with the regulatory authorities is not required if the securities are purchased for investment as opposed to resale.
Pro forma capital structure analysis
A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
A method of analysing financial reports to interpret trends and make comparisons by using ratios – two numbers, with one generally expressed as a percentage of the other.
A method of relating numbers from the various financial statements to one another in order to get meaningful information for comparison.
The process of using financial ratios, calculated from key accounts
A statistical technique that can be used to estimate relationships between variables.
Statistical analysis techniques that quantify the
This subject of replacement of existing policies is covered because sometimes existing life insurance policies are unnecessarily replaced with new coverage resulting in a loss of valuable benefits. If someone suggests replacing your existing coverage, insist on having a comparison disclosure statement completed.
Replacement Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditures required to replace productive
Idea that future replacement decisions must be taken into account in selecting
Cost to replace a firm's assets.
an amount that a firm would pay to replace an asset or buy a new one that performs the same functions as an asset currently held
The cost that would be incurred to replace an existing asset with one having the same utility.
The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset.
Parts requiring some modification before being substituted
Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.
The amount necessary to duplicate a company's assets at current
Cost of acquiring a new asset to replace an existing asset with the same functional utility.
The use of horizon analysis to project bond total returns under different reinvestment rates
Project analysis given a particular combination of assumptions.
analysis of the effect on a project's profitability due to changes in sales, cost, and so on.
An approach to understanding how changes in one variable of cost–volume–profit analysis are affected by changes in the other variables.
a process of determining the amount of change that must occur in a variable before a different decision would be made
analysis of the effects of changes in sales, costs, and so on, on project profitability.
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