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Information-content effect

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Definition of Information-content effect

Information-content Effect Image 1

Information-content effect

The rise in the stock price following the dividend signal.



Related Terms:

Antidilutive effect

Result of a transaction that increases earnings per common share (e.g. by decreasing the
number of shares outstanding).


Asymmetric information

information that is known to some people but not to other people.


Blue Ribbon Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees

A committee formed in response to SEC chairman Arthur Levitt's initiative to improve the financial
reporting environment in the United States. In a report dated February 1999, the committee
made recommendations for new rules for regulation of financial reporting in the United States that
either duplicated or carried forward the recommendations of the Treadway Commission.


Calendar effect

The tendency of stocks to perform differently at different times, including such anomalies as
the January effect, month-of-the-year effect, day-of-the-week effect, and holiday effect.


Clientele effect

The grouping of investors who have a preference that the firm follow a particular financing
policy, such as the amount of leverage it uses.



Coinsurance effect

Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms decreases the probability of default on
either firm's debt.


Cumulative-Effect Adjustment

The cumulative, after-tax, prior-year effect of a change in accounting
principle. It is reported as a single line item on the income statement in the year of the
change in accounting principle. The cumulative-effect-type adjustment is the most common accounting
treatment afforded changes in accounting principle.


Information-content Effect Image 2

Cumulative Effect of a Change in Accounting Principle

The change in earnings of previous years
based on the assumption that a newly adopted accounting principle had previously been in use.


Cumulative Effect of Accounting Change

The change in earnings of previous years assuming
that the newly adopted accounting principle had previously been in use.


Dilutive effect

Result of a transaction that decreases earnings per common share.


Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding.


effective annual interest rate

Interest rate that is annualized using compound interest.


Effective annual yield

Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.


Effective Annual Yield

Annualized rate of return on a security computed using compound
interest techniques


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Effective convexity

The convexity of a bond calculated with cash flows that change with yields.


Effective date

In an interest rate swap, the date the swap begins accruing interest.


Effective duration

The duration calculated using the approximate duration formula for a bond with an
embedded option, reflecting the expected change in the cash flow caused by the option. Measures the
responsiveness of a bond's price taking into account the expected cash flows will change as interest rates
change due to the embedded option.



Effective Exchange Rate

The weighted average of several exchange rates, where the weights are determined by the extent of our trade done with each country.


Effective Interest Rate

The rate of interest actually earned on an investment. It is
calculated as the ratio of the total amount of interest actually
earned for one year divided by the amount of the principal.


Effective margin (EM)

Used with SAT performance measures, the amount equaling the net earned spread, or
margin, of income on the assets in excess of financing costs for a given interest rate and prepayment rate
scenario.


Effective rate

A measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of compounding.


Effective spread

The gross underwriting spread adjusted for the impact of the announcement of the common
stock offering on the firm's share price.


Effective Tax Rate

The total tax provision divided by pretax book income from continuing
operations.


effectiveness

a measure of how well an organization’s goals
and objectives are achieved; compares actual output results
to desired results; determination of the successful accomplishment
of an objective


Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.


Fisher effect

A theory that nominal interest rates in two or more countries should be equal to the required real
rate of return to investors plus compensation for the expected amount of inflation in each country.


Future-Oriented Financial Information

information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. Future-oriented financial information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.



information

bits of knowledge or fact that have been carefully
chosen from a body of data and arranged in a meaningful way


Information asymmetry

A situation involving information that is known to some, but not all, participants.


Information Coefficient (IC)

The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.


information content of dividends

Dividend increases send good news about cash flow and earnings. Dividend cuts send bad news.


Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.


Information-motivated trades

Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
information not currently reflected in the stock's price.


Information services

Organizations that furnish investment and other types of information, such as
information that helps a firm monitor its cash position.


Informational efficiency

The speed and accuracy with which prices reflect new information.


Informationless trades

Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.


Insider information

Relevant information about a company that has not yet been made public. It is illegal for
holders of this information to make trades based on it, however received.


International Fisher effect

States that the interest rate differential between two countries should be an
unbiased predictor of the future change in the spot rate.


international Fisher effect

Theory that real interest rates in all countries should be equal, with differences in nominal rates reflecting differences in expected inflation.


Low price-earnings ratio effect

The tendency of portfolios of stocks with a low price-earnings ratio to
outperform portfolios consisting of stocks with a high price-earnings ratio.


management information system (MIS)

a structure of interrelated elements that collects, organizes, and communicates
data to managers so they may plan, control, evaluate
performance, and make decisions; the emphasis of the
MIS is on internal demands for information rather than external
demands; some or all of the MIS may be computerized
for ease of access to information, reliability of input
and processing, and ability to simulate outcomes of
alternative situations


Medical Information Bureau

This organization was established in 1902. The Medical information Bureau (M.I.B.) is a non-profit association of life insurance companies. Its purpose is to detect and deter fraud by providing warnings called, alerts, to member companies. For example, if an insurance applicant advised one insurance company of a heart attack and then applied to another insurance company omitting this history, codes, reported by the first insurance company, indicating a heart attack would alert the second insurance company to the undisclosed history. It is a rarity, however, that the alert is the only notice of a specific medical impairement as most applicants completely disclose their history.


Neglected firm effect

The tendency of firms that are neglected by security analysts to outperform firms that
are the subject of considerable attention.


P/E effect

That portfolios with low P/E stocks have exhibited higher average risk-adjusted returns than high P/E stocks.


Panel on Audit Effectiveness

A special committee of the Public Oversight Board that was created
to perform a comprehensive review and evaluation of the way independent audits of financial
statements of publicly traded companies are performed. The panel found generally that the
quality of audits is fundamentally sound. The panel did recommend the expansion of audit steps
designed to detect fraud.


Policy-Ineffectiveness Proposition

Theory that anticipated policy has no effect on output.


Small-firm effect

The tendency of small firms (in terms of total market capitalization) to outperform the
stock market (consisting of both large and small firms).


Synergistic effect

A violation of value-additivity whereby the value of the combination is greater than the
sum of the individual values.


Wealth Effect

The effect on spending of a change in wealth caused by a change in the overall price level.


Weekend effect

The common recurrent low or negative average return from Friday to Monday in the stock market.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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