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Graham-Harvey Measure 2

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Definition of Graham-Harvey Measure 2

Graham-Harvey Measure 2 Image 1

Graham-Harvey Measure 2

Performance measure invented by John graham and Campbell harvey. The
idea is to lever the S&P 500 portfolio to exactly match the volatility of the fund. The difference between the
fund's return and the levered S&P 500 return is the performance measure.



Related Terms:

Graham-Harvey Measure 1

Performance measure invented by John graham and Campbell harvey. The
idea is to lever a fund's portfolio to exactly match the volatility of the S and P 500. The difference between the
fund's levered return and the S&P 500 return is the performance measure.


Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour

hours, machine hours or volume of production
used to apportion overheads to products and
services.


Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
large number of trades.


Internal measure

The number of days that a firm can finance operations without additional cash income.


Measurement error

Errors in measuring an explanatory variable in a regression that leads to biases in
estimated parameters.



Performance measurement

The calculation of the return realized by a money manager over some time interval.


physical measurement allocation

a method of allocating a joint cost to products that uses a common physical characteristic as the proration base


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Unit of measure (UOM, UofM)

The summarization unit by which an item is tracked, such as a
box of 100 or an each of 1.


activity

a repetitive action performed in fulfillment of business functions


activity analysis

the process of detailing the various repetitive actions that are performed in making a product or
providing a service, classifying them as value-added and
non-value-added, and devising ways of minimizing or eliminating
non-value-added activities


Activity-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers – see also activity-based costing.


activity-based budgeting (ABB)

planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
quality of production


Activity-based costing

A method of costing that uses cost pools to accumulate the cost of significant business activities and then assigns the costs from the cost pools to products or services based on cost drivers.


activity based costing (ABC)

A relatively new method advocated for the
allocation of indirect costs. The key idea is to classify indirect costs,
many of which are fixed in amount for a period of time, into separate
activities and to develop a measure for each activity called a cost driver.
The products or other functions in the business that benefit from the
activity are allocated shares of the total indirect cost for the period based
on their usage as measured by the cost driver.


activity-based costing (ABC)

a process using multiple cost drivers to predict and allocate costs to products and services;
an accounting system collecting financial and operational
data on the basis of the underlying nature and extent
of business activities; an accounting information and
costing system that identifies the various activities performed
in an organization, collects costs on the basis of
the underlying nature and extent of those activities, and
assigns costs to products and services based on consumption
of those activities by the products and services


Activity-based costing (ABC)

A cost allocation system that compiles costs and assigns
them to activities based on relevant activity drivers. The cost of these activities can
then be charged to products or customers to arrive at a much more relevant allocation
of costs than was previously the case.


Graham-Harvey Measure 2 Image 1

activity-based management (ABM)

a discipline that focuses on the activities incurred during the production/performance process as the way to improve the value received
by a customer and the resulting profit achieved by providing
this value


activity center

a segment of the production or service
process for which management wants to separately report
the costs of the activities performed



activity driver

a measure of the demands on activities and,
thus, the resources consumed by products and services;
often indicates an activity’s output


allocation

the systematic assignment of an amount to a recipient
set of categories annuity a series of equal cash flows (either positive or negative) per period


Allocation

The process of storing costs in one account and shifting them to other
accounts, based on some relevant measure of activity.


approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs


Asset activity ratios

Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.


Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.


Asset-based financing

Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
cash flow from a particular asset or set of assets for a return on, and the return of, their financing.


Asset-Based Financing

Loans granted usually by a financial institution where the asset being financed constitutes the sole security given to the lender.


attribute-based costing (ABC II)

an extension of activitybased costing using cost-benefit analysis (based on increased customer utility) to choose the product attribute
enhancements that the company wants to integrate into a product


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Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.



Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.


Base Year

The reference year when constructing a price index. By tradition it is given the value 100.


business-value-added activity

an activity that is necessary for the operation of the business but for which a customer would not want to pay


Capital allocation

decision allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Common-base-year analysis

The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages
of amounts in an initial year.
Common-size analysis The representing of balance sheet items as percentages of assets and of income
statement items as percentages of sales.


cost allocation

the assignment, using some reasonable basis,
of any indirect cost to one or more cost objects


Cost–volume–profit analysis (CVP)

A method for understanding the relationship between revenue, cost and sales volume.


cost-volume-profit (CVP)

analysis a procedure that examines
changes in costs and volume levels and the resulting
effects on net income (profits)


Dynamic asset allocation

An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in
response to -changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example.


Equity-based insurance

Life insurance or annuity product in which the cash value and benefit level fluctuate according to the performance of an equity portfolio.


fixed overhead volume variance

see volume variance


Labour oncost

The non-salary or wage costs that follow from the payment of salaries or wages, e.g. National
Insurance and pension contributions.


Labour-Sponsored Venture Funds

Venture capital corporations established by labour unions. They function as other venture capital corporations but are subject to government regulation.


Monetary Base

See money base.


Money base

Composed of currency and coins outside the banking system plus liabilities to the deposit money banks.


Money Base

Cash plus deposits of the commercial banks with the central bank.


net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products that uses, as the proration base, sales value at split-off minus all costs necessary
to prepare and dispose of the products; it requires
that all joint products be salable at the split-off point


non-value-added (NVA) activity

an activity that increases the time spent on a product or service but that does not increase its worth or value to the customer


Overhead allocation

The process of spreading production overhead equitably over the volume of production of goods or services.


physical measurement allocation

a method of allocating a joint cost to products that uses a common physical characteristic as the proration base


Policy asset allocation

A long-term asset allocation method, in which the investor seeks to assess an
appropriate long-term "normal" asset mix that represents an ideal blend of controlled risk and enhanced
return.


Price-volume relationship

A relationship espoused by some technical analysts that signals continuing rises
and falls in security prices based on accompanying changes in volume traded.


Priority-based budget

A budget that allocates funds in line with strategies.


profit-volume graph

a visual representation of the amount
of profit or loss associated with each level of sales


sales value at split-off allocation

a method of assigning joint cost to joint products that uses the relative sales values of the products at the split-off point as the proration basis; use of this method requires that all joint products
are salable at the split-off point


Tactical Asset Allocation (TAA)

An asset allocation strategy that allows active departures from the normal
asset mix based upon rigorous objective measures of value. Often called active management. It involves
forecasting asset returns, volatilities and correlations. The forecasted variables may be functions of
fundamental variables, economic variables or even technical variables.


value-added (VA) activity

an activity that increases the worth of the product or service to the customer


Value-based management

A variety of approaches that emphasize increasing shareholder value as the primary goal of every business.


Volume

This is the daily number of shares of a security that change hands between a buyer and a seller.


volume variance

a fixed overhead variance that represents
the difference between budgeted fixed overhead and fixed
overhead applied to production of the period; is also referred
to as the noncontrollable variance


zero-base budgeting

a comprehensive budgeting process
that systematically considers the priorities and alternatives
for current and proposed activities in relation to organization
objectives; it requires the rejustification of ongoing activities


Zero-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that ignores historical budgetary allocations and identifies the costs that are necessary to implement agreed strategies.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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