Financial Terms
GNP

Main Page

Alphabetical
Index

SEARCH


Information about financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.

 


Main Page: payroll, money, business, stock trading, inventory, credit, financial advisor, tax advisor,

Definition of GNP

GNP Image 1

GNP

See gross national product.



Related Terms:

Gross national product (GNP)

Measures and economy's total income. It is equal to GDP plus the income
abroad accruing to domestic residents minus income generated in domestic market accruing to non-residents.


Net National Product

gnp minus depreciation.


Aggregate Production Function

An equation determining aggregate output as a function of aggregate inputs such as labor and capital.


approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs


Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks, the Bank of Japan, and the
U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it
now monitors and collects data on international banking activity and promulgates rules concerning
international bank regulation.



by-product

an incidental output of a joint process; it is salable,
but the sales value of by-products is not substantial enough
for management to justify undertaking the joint process; it
is viewed as having a higher sales value than scrap


By-product

A product that is an ancillary part of the primary production process, having
a minor resale value in comparison to the value of the primary product being
manufactured. Any proceeds from the sale of a by-product are typically offset
against the cost of the primary product, or recorded as miscellaneous revenue.


GNP Image 1

By-product

A material created incidental to a production process, which can be
sold for value.


cost of production report

a process costing document that
details all operating and cost information, shows the computation
of cost per equivalent unit, and indicates cost assignment
to goods produced during the period


Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.


economic production run (EPR)

an estimate of the number
of units to produce at one time that minimizes the total
costs of setting up production runs and carrying inventory


equivalent units of production (EUP)

an approximation of the number of whole units of output that could have been
produced during a period from the actual effort expended
during that period; used in process costing systems to assign
costs to production


European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.


Exposure netting

Offsetting exposures in one currency with exposures in the same or another currency,
where exchange rates are expected to move in such a way that losses or gains on the first exposed position
should be offset by gains or losses on the second currency exposure.


Factor of Production

A resource used to produce a good or service. The main macroeconomic factors of production are capital and labor.


Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.


GNP Image 2

Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.


grade (of product or service)

the addition or removal of product
or service characteristics to satisfy additional needs, especially price



Gross Domestic Product

Total output of final goods and services produced within a country during a year.


Gross domestic product (GDP)

The market value of goods and services produced over time including the
income of foreign corporations and foreign residents working in the U.S., but excluding the income of U.S.
residents and corporations overseas.


Gross interest

Interest earned before taxes are deducted.


Gross margin

Revenues less the cost of goods sold.


gross margin, or gross profit

This first-line measure of profit
equals sales revenue less cost of goods sold. This is profit before operating
expenses and interest and income tax expenses are deducted. Financial
reporting standards require that gross margin be reported in
external income statements. gross margin is a key variable in management
profit reports for decision making and control. gross margin
doesn’t apply to service businesses that don’t sell products.


Gross National Product

Total output of final goods and services produced by a country's citizens during a year.


Gross Pay

The amount of earnings due to an employee prior to tax and other deductions.


GROSS PROFIT

The profit a company makes before expenses and taxes are taken away.


Gross profit

The difference between the price at which goods or services are sold and the cost of sales.
Income The revenue generated from the sale of goods or services.


GNP Image 3

Gross profit

The result of subtracting cost of goods sold from sales. Synonymous with gross margin.



Gross Profit

Revenue less cost of goods sold.


Gross profit margin

gross profit divided by sales, which is equal to each sales dollar left over after paying
for the cost of goods sold.


Gross Profit Margin

gross profit divided by revenue.


Gross sales

The total sales recorded prior to sales discounts and returns.


Gross spread

The fraction of the gross proceeds of an underwritten securities offering that is paid as
compensation to the underwriters of the offering.


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - IBRD or World Bank

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high
economic priority.


International Banking Facility (IBF)

International Banking Facility. A branch that an American bank
establishes in the United States to do Eurocurrency business.


International bonds

A collective term that refers to global bonds, Eurobonds, and foreign bonds.


International Depository Receipt (IDR)

A receipt issued by a bank as evidence of ownership of one or more
shares of the underlying stock of a foreign corporation that the bank holds in trust. The advantage of the IDR
structure is that the corporation does not have to comply with all the regulatory issuing requirements of the
foreign country where the stock is to be traded. The U.S. version of the IDR is the American Depository
Receipt (ADR).


International diversification

The attempt to reduce risk by investing in the more than one nation. By
diversifying across nations whose economic cycles are not perfectly correlated, investors can typically reduce
the variability of their returns.


International finance subsidiary

A subsidiary incorporated in the U.S., usually in Delaware, whose sole
purpose was to issue debentures overseas and invest the proceeds in foreign operations, with the interest paid
to foreign bondholders not subject to U.S. withholding tax. The elimination of the corporate withholding tax
has ended the need for this type of subsidiary.


International Fisher effect

States that the interest rate differential between two countries should be an
unbiased predictor of the future change in the spot rate.


international Fisher effect

Theory that real interest rates in all countries should be equal, with differences in nominal rates reflecting differences in expected inflation.


International fund

A mutual fund that can invest only outside the United States.


international fund

A mutual fund that can invest in securities issued anywhere outside of Canada.


International market

Related: See external market.


International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment
problems.


International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Organization originally established to manage the postwar fixed exchange rate system.


International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


International Reserves

See foreign exchange reserves.


Internet business model

a model that involves
(1) few physical assets,
(2) little management hierarchy, and
(3) a direct pipeline to customers


intranet

a mechanism for sharing information and delivering data from corporate databases to the local-area network (LAN) desktops


Investment product line (IPML)

The line of required returns for investment projects as a function of beta
(nondiversifiable risk).


Joint product

A product that has the highest sales value from among a group of products
that are the result of a joint production process.


Lean production

The technique of stripping all non-value-added activities from
the production process, thereby using the minimum possible amount of resources
to accomplish manufacturing goals.


London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
as well as futures-style options are traded.


London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.


Monetarism

School of economic thought stressing the importance of the money supply in the economy. Adherents believe that the economy is inherently stable, so that policy is best undertaken through adoption of a policy rule.


Monetarist Rule

Proposal that the money supply be increased at a steady rate equal approximately to the real rate of growth of the economy. Contrast with discretionary policy.


Monetary Aggregate

Any measure of the economy's money supply.


Monetary Base

See money base.


Monetary gold

Gold held by governmental authorities as a financial asset.


Monetary / non-monetary method

Under this translation method, monetary items (e.g. cash, accounts
payable and receivable, and long-term debt) are translated at the current rate while non-monetary items (e.g.
inventory, fixed assets, and long-term investments) are translated at historical rates.


Monetary policy

Actions taken by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to influence the
money supply or interest rates.


Monetary Policy

Actions taken by the central bank to change the supply of money and the interest rate and thereby affect economic activity.


Monetizing the Debt

See printing money.


Multinational corporation

A firm that operates in more than one country.


National Debt

The debt owed by the government as a result of earlier borrowing to finance budget deficits. That part of the debt not held by the central bank is the publically held national debt.


National Futures Association (NFA)

The futures industry self regulatory organization established in 1982.


National Income

GDP with some adjustments to remove items that do not make it into anyone's hands as income, such as indirect taxes and depreciation. Loosely speaking, it is interpreted as being equal to GDP.


National Income and Product Accounts

The national accounting system that records economic activity such as GDP and related measures.


National market

Related: internal market


National Output

GDP.


National Saving

Private saving plus public saving. That part of national income which is not spent on consumption goods or government spending.


Nationalization

A government takeover of a private company.


Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.


Net advantage of refunding

The net present value of the savings from a refunding.


Net advantage to leasing

The net present value of entering into a lease financing arrangement rather than
borrowing the necessary funds and buying the asset.


Net advantage to merging

The difference in total post- and pre-merger market value minus the cost of the merger.


net asset value

The value of all the holdings of a mutual fund, less the fund's liabilities.


Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.


Net assets

The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized longterm
liabilities on the other hand.


Net benefit to leverage factor

A linear approximation of a factor, T*, that enables one to operationalize the
total impact of leverage on firm value in the capital market imperfections view of capital structure.


Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.


Net Cash after Operations

Cash flow available for debt service—the payment of interest and principal on loans. Generally calculated as cash provided by operating activities before interest
expense.


Net cash balance

Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.


Net change

This is the difference between a day's last trade and the previous day's last trade.


net cost of normal spoilage

the cost of spoiled work less the estimated disposal value of that work


Net Domestic Product

GDP minus depreciation.


Net errors and omissions

In balance of payments accounting, net errors and omissions record the statistical
discrepancies that arise in gathering balance of payments data.


Net Exports

Exports minus imports.


Net financing cost

Also called the cost of carry or, simply, carry, the difference between the cost of financing
the purchase of an asset and the asset's cash yield. Positive carry means that the yield earned is greater than
the financing cost; negative carry means that the financing cost exceeds the yield earned.


Net float

Sum of disbursement float and collection float.


net float

Difference between payment float and availability float.


Net income

The company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business,
depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses.


NET INCOME

The profit a company makes after cost of goods sold, expenses, and taxes are subtracted from net sales.


Net income

The last line of the Income Statement; it represents the amount that the company earned during a specified period.


Net income

The excess of revenues over expenses, including the impact of income taxes.


net income (also called the bottom line, earnings, net earnings, and net

operating earnings)
This key figure equals sales revenue for a period
less all expenses for the period; also, any extraordinary gains and losses
for the period are included in this final profit figure. Everything is taken
into account to arrive at net income, which is popularly called the bottom
line. net income is clearly the single most important number in business
financial reports.


Net inventory

The current inventory balance, less allocated or reserved items.


Net investment

gross, or total, investment minus depreciation.


Net Investment

Investment spending minus depreciation.


Net lease

A lease arrangement under which the lessee is responsible for all property taxes, maintenance
expenses, insurance, and other costs associated with keeping the asset in good working condition.



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.


Copyright© 2019 www.finance-lib.com