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Definition of fundamental analysts
analysts who attempt to find under- or overvalued securities by analyzing fundamental information, such as earnings, asset values, and business prospects.
Also called securities analysts and investment analysts, professionals who analyze
Security analysis that seeks to detect misvalued securities by an analysis of the firm's
The product of a statistical model to predict the fundamental risk of a security using not
In the model for calculating fundamental beta, ratios in risk indexes other than
Related: financial analysts
Also called chartists or technicians, analysts who use mechanical rules to detect changes
Investors who attempt to identify over- or undervalued stocks by searching for patterns in past prices.
Process of analyzing financial statements of a company for any continuing relationship.
A financial analysis technique that relates key amounts on the income statement and balance sheet to a 100 percent or base figure for the present and previous year.
the process of detailing the various repetitive actions that are performed in making a product or
A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
An analysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit.
analysis of the level of sales at which the company breaks even.
An analytical technique for studying the relationships between fixed cost, variable cost, and profits. A breakeven chart graphically depicts the nature of breakeven analysis. The breakeven point represents the volume of sales at which total costs equal total revenues (that is, profits equal zero).
capital investment analysis
Refers to various techniques and procedures
Changes in Financial Position
Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's
chief financial officer (CFO)
Officer who oversees the treasurer and controller and sets overall financial strategy.
A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated
The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages
Comparative credit analysis
A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
Corporate financial management
The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
Corporate financial planning
financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
an analytical technique that uses statistical
The calculation and comparison of the costs and benefits of a policy or project.
cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the
relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
cost driver analysis
the process of investigating, quantifying,
Cost–volume–profit analysis (CVP)
A method for understanding the relationship between revenue, cost and sales volume.
costs of financial distress
Costs arising from bankruptcy or distorted business decisions before bankruptcy.
Country financial risk
The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
Procedure to determine the likelihood a customer will pay its bills.
A statistical process that links the probability of default to a specified set of financial ratios.
Dupont system of financial control
Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
External Financial Statements
Corporate financial statements that have been reported on by an external independent accountant.
A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon, such as the return on a
The examination of failure incidents to identify components
The production of financial statements, primarily for those interested parties who are external to the business.
a discipline in which historical, monetary
Claims on real assets.
Claims to the income generated by real assets. Also called securities.
Economic assistance provided by unrelated third parties, typically government agencies. They may take the form of loans, loan guarantees, subsidies, tax allowances, contributions, or cost-sharing arrangements.
a plan that aggregates monetary details
The management of a firm's costs and expenses in order to control them in relation to
A feature of a debt or credit agreement that is designed to protect the lender or creditor. It is common to characterize covenants as either positive or negative covenants.
A promise made related to financial conditions or events. Often a promise not to allow certain balance sheet items or ratios to fall below an agreed level. Usually found in loan documents, as a protection mechanism.
Events preceding and including bankruptcy, such as violation of loan contracts.
Financial distress costs
Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
Combining or dividing existing instruments to create new financial products.
A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
a monetary reward provided for performance
An expression of economic benefit that motivates behavior that might otherwise not take place.
Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.
The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.
Long-term, non-cancelable lease.
Lease in which the service provided by the lessor to the lessee is limited to financing equipment. All other responsibilities related to the possession of equipment, such as maintenance, insurance, and taxes, are borne by the lessee. A financial lease is usually noncancellable and is fully paid out amortized over its term.
Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. financial leverage is measured by
The equity (ownership) capital of a business can serve
Debt financing amplifies the effects of changes in operating income on the returns to stockholders.
Financial leverage clientele
A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
Financial leverage ratios
Related: capitalization ratios.
An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.
Markets in which financial assets are traded.
Financial Numbers Game
The use of creative accounting practices to alter a financial statement
Objectives of a financial nature that the firm will strive to accomplish during the period
A financial blueprint for the financial future of a firm.
The process of evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. It
Status of a firm's assets, liabilities, and equity accounts as of a certain time, as shown in its financial statement.
That portion of the media devoted to reporting financial news.
The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret
financial reports and statements
financial means having to do with
Financial reports or statements
The Profit and Loss account, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow statement of a business.
The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations.
Risk to shareholders resulting from the use of debt.
Ready access to cash or debt financing.
The accounting period adopted by a business for the production of its financial statements.
Fraudulent Financial Reporting
Intentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures
Future-Oriented Financial Information
Information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. Future-oriented financial information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.
An analysis of returns using total return to assess performance over some investment horizon.
The process of dividing each expense item of a given year by the same expense item in
a process of evaluating changes that
least squares regression analysis
a statistical technique that investigates the association between dependent and independent variables; it determines the line of "best fit" for a set of observations by minimizing the sum of the squares
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.
Long-term financial plan
financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.
Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes.
Multiple-discriminant analysis (MDA)
Statistical technique for distinguishing between two groups on the
Include such things as freight, insurance, passenger services, and travel.
Notes to the financial statements
A detailed set of notes immediately following the financial statements in
a method of ranking the causes of variation
The 80:20 ratio that states that 20% of the variables included in an
Perfectly competitive financial markets
Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
Performance attribution analysis
The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain
Pro forma capital structure analysis
A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
Pro forma financial statements
financial statements as adjusted to reflect a projected or planned transaction.
financial statements and financial information made public.
A method of analysing financial reports to interpret trends and make comparisons by using ratios – two numbers, with one generally expressed as a percentage of the other.
A method of relating numbers from the various financial statements to one another in order to get meaningful information for comparison.
The process of using financial ratios, calculated from key accounts
A statistical technique that can be used to estimate relationships between variables.
Statistical analysis techniques that quantify the
Restatement of Prior-Year Financial Statements
A recasting of prior-year financial statements to remove the effects of an error or other adjustment and report them on a new basis.
The use of horizon analysis to project bond total returns under different reinvestment rates
Project analysis given a particular combination of assumptions.
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