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Definition of financial risk
risk to shareholders resulting from the use of debt.
The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations.
The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
The inherent or fundamental risk of a firm, without regard to financial risk. The risk that is
Categories of risk used to calculate fundamental beta, including (1) market variability, (2)
The amount of total risk that can be eliminated by diversification by
The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.
The uncertainty about the basis at the time a hedge may be lifted. Hedging substitutes basis risk for
risk of a firm measured from the standpoint of an investor who holds a highly diversified portfolio.
The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic
The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.
Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's
Officer who oversees the treasurer and controller and sets overall financial strategy.
The risk that a foreign debtor will be unable to pay its debts because of business events,
Related: Unsystematic risk
See asset-specific risk
The risk that a project will not be brought into operation successfully.
Corporate financial management
The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
Corporate financial planning
financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
costs of financial distress
Costs arising from bankruptcy or distorted business decisions before bankruptcy.
The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
Country risk General
Level of political and economic uncertainty in a country affecting the value of loans or
The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on his obligations, or that the
financial and moral risk that an obligation will not be paid and a loss will result.
Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
Related: Exchange rate risk
Currency risk sharing
An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with
Also referred to as credit risk (as gauged by commercial rating companies), the risk that an
Related: unsystematic risk.
Dupont system of financial control
Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
Equilibrium market price of risk
The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
The risk that the ability of an issuer to make interest and principal payments will change because
Exchange rate risk
Also called currency risk, the risk of an investment's value changing because of currency
The variability of a firm's value that results from unexpected exchange rate changes or the
External Financial Statements
Corporate financial statements that have been reported on by an external independent accountant.
A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be
The production of financial statements, primarily for those interested parties who are external to the business.
a discipline in which historical, monetary
Also called securities analysts and investment analysts, professionals who analyze
Claims on real assets.
Claims to the income generated by real assets. Also called securities.
Economic assistance provided by unrelated third parties, typically government agencies. They may take the form of loans, loan guarantees, subsidies, tax allowances, contributions, or cost-sharing arrangements.
a plan that aggregates monetary details
The management of a firm's costs and expenses in order to control them in relation to
A feature of a debt or credit agreement that is designed to protect the lender or creditor. It is common to characterize covenants as either positive or negative covenants.
A promise made related to financial conditions or events. Often a promise not to allow certain balance sheet items or ratios to fall below an agreed level. Usually found in loan documents, as a protection mechanism.
Events preceding and including bankruptcy, such as violation of loan contracts.
Financial distress costs
Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
Combining or dividing existing instruments to create new financial products.
A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
a monetary reward provided for performance
An expression of economic benefit that motivates behavior that might otherwise not take place.
Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.
The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.
Long-term, non-cancelable lease.
Lease in which the service provided by the lessor to the lessee is limited to financing equipment. All other responsibilities related to the possession of equipment, such as maintenance, insurance, and taxes, are borne by the lessee. A financial lease is usually noncancellable and is fully paid out amortized over its term.
Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. financial leverage is measured by
The equity (ownership) capital of a business can serve
Debt financing amplifies the effects of changes in operating income on the returns to stockholders.
Financial leverage clientele
A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
Financial leverage ratios
Related: capitalization ratios.
An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.
Markets in which financial assets are traded.
Financial Numbers Game
The use of creative accounting practices to alter a financial statement
Objectives of a financial nature that the firm will strive to accomplish during the period
A financial blueprint for the financial future of a firm.
The process of evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. It
Status of a firm's assets, liabilities, and equity accounts as of a certain time, as shown in its financial statement.
That portion of the media devoted to reporting financial news.
The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret
financial reports and statements
financial means having to do with
Financial reports or statements
The Profit and Loss account, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow statement of a business.
Ready access to cash or debt financing.
Financial Trend Analysis
Process of analyzing financial statements of a company for any continuing relationship.
The accounting period adopted by a business for the production of its financial statements.
See:diversifiable risk or unsystematic risk.
Flat price risk
Taking a position either long or short that does not involve spreading.
Force majeure risk
The risk that there will be an interruption of operations for a prolonged period after a
Foreign exchange risk
The risk that a long or short position in a foreign currency might have to be closed out
Fraudulent Financial Reporting
Intentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures
Related: interest rate risk
Future-Oriented Financial Information
Information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. Future-oriented financial information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.
risk that arises when an issuer has policies concentrated within certain geographic areas,
The risk of loss in foreign exchange trading that one party will deliver foreign exchange but the counterparty financial institution will fail to deliver its end of the contract. It is also referred to as settlement risk.
High-Risk Small Business
Firm viewed as being particularly subject to risk from an investors perspective.
Unsystematic risk or risk that is uncorrelated to the overall market risk. In other words,
Also called purchasing-power risk, the risk that changes in the real return the investor will
The risk that a firm will be unable to satisfy its debts. Also known as bankruptcy risk.
Interest rate risk
The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a
Interest Rate Risk
Possibility that interest rates will rise during the term of a loan thereby increasing the annual cost of borrowing.
judgmental method (of risk adjustment)
an informal method of adjusting for risk that allows the decision maker
The risk that arises from the difficulty of selling an asset. It can be thought of as the difference
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.
Long-term financial plan
financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.
Market price of risk
A measure of the extra return, or risk premium, that investors demand to bear risk. The
risk that cannot be diversified away. Related: systematic risk
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