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Definition of Filter

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A rule that stipulates when a security should be bought or sold according to past price action.

Related Terms:

48-hour rule

The requirement that all pool information, as specified under the PSA Uniform Practices, in a
TBA transaction be communicated by the seller to the buyer before 3 p.m. EST on the business day 48-hours
prior to the agreed upon trade date.

Administrative pricing rules

IRS rules used to allocate income on export sales to a foreign sales corporation.

Arm's length price

The price at which a willing buyer and a willing unrelated seller would freely agree to

Ask price

A dealer's price to sell a security; also called the offer price.

Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.

Attribution Rules

Legislation under which interest, dividends, or capital gains earned on assets you transfer to your spouse will be treated as your own for tax purposes. Interest or dividends relating to property transferred to children under 18 also will be attributed back to you. The exception to this rule is that capital gains relating to property transferred to children under 18 will not be attributed back to you.

Available-for-Sale Security

A debt or equity security not classified as a held-to-maturity security or a trading security. Can be classified as a current or noncurrent investment depending on the intended holding period.

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Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.

Basic IRR rule

Accept the project if IRR is greater than the discount rate; reject the project is lower than the
discount rate.

Basis price

price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.

Bid price

This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically
speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask , offer.

Bought deal

security issue where one or two underwriters buy the entire issue.

Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.

Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.

Cash transaction

A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.

Clean price

Bond price excluding accrued interest.

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Collection fractions

The percentage of a given month's sales collected during the month of sale and each
month following the month of sale.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

An index calculated by tracking the cost of a typical bundle of consumer goods and services over time. It is commonly used to measure inflation.

Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price

Convertible price

The contractually specified price per share at which a convertible security can be
converted into shares of common stock.

Convertible security

A security that can be converted into common stock at the option of the security holder,
including convertible bonds and convertible preferred stock.

Cost of goods sold

The cost of merchandise that a company sold this year. For manufacturing companies, the cost of raw
materials, components, labor and other things that went into producing an item.

Cost of goods sold

See cost of sales.

Cost of goods sold

The cost of the items that were sold during the current period.

Cost of goods sold

The accumulated total of all costs used to create a product or service,
which is then sold. These costs fall into the general sub-categories of direct
labor, materials, and overhead.

Cost of goods sold

The charge to expense of the direct materials, direct labor, and
allocated overhead costs associated with products sold during a defined accounting

Debt Security

A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
security, municipal security, corporate bond, convertible debt issue, and commercial

Delivery price

The price fixed by the Clearing house at which deliveries on futures are in invoiced; also the
price at which the futures contract is settled when deliveries are made.

Derivative security

A financial security, such as an option, or future, whose value is derived in part from the
value and characteristics of another security, the underlying security.

Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency

Dirty price

Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer.

Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.

Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.

Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.

Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)

A federal Act that sets minimum operational and funding standards for employee benefit

Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.

Equity Security

An ownership interest in an enterprise, including preferred and common stock.

Escalating Price Option

A nonqualified stock option that uses a sliding scale for
the option price that changes in concert with a peer group index.

Exchangeable Security

security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.

Exercise price

The price at which the underlying future or options contract may be bought or sold.

Exercise price

The price set for buying an asset (call) or selling an asset (put).
The strike price.

Fair market price

Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, both having
knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price.

Fair price

The equilibrium price for futures contracts. Also called the theoretical futures price, which equals
the spot price continuously compounded at the cost of carry rate for some time interval.

Fair price provision

See:appraisal rights.

Fixed-dollar security

A nonnegotiable debt security that can be redeemed at some fixed price or according to
some schedule of fixed values, e.g., bank deposits and government savings bonds.

Fixed-income security

A security that pays a specified cash flow over a
specific period. Bonds are typical fixed-income securities.

Fixed price basis

An offering of securities at a fixed price.

Fixed-price tender offer

A one-time offer to purchase a stated number of shares at a stated fixed price,
usually a premium to the current market price.

Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.

Flat price risk

Taking a position either long or short that does not involve spreading.

floating-rate security

security paying dividends or interest that vary with short-term interest rates.

fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

Fractional Reserve Banking

A banking system in which banks hold only a fraction of their outstanding deposits in cash or on deposit with the central bank.

Full price

Also called dirty price, the price of a bond including accrued interest. Related: flat price.

Futures price

The price at which the parties to a futures contract agree to transact on the settlement date.

Going-private transactions

Publicly owned stock in a firm is replaced with complete equity ownership by a
private group. The shares are delisted from stock exchanges and can no longer be purchased in the open

Head & shoulders

In technical analysis, a chart formation in which a stock price reaches a peak and declines,
rises above its former peak and again declines and rises again but not to the second peak and then again
declines. The first and third peaks are shoulders, while the second peak is the formation's head. Technical
analysts generally consider a head and shoulders formation to be a very bearish indication.

Held-to-Maturity Security

A debt security for which the investing entity has both the positive
intent and the ability to hold until maturity.

High price

The highest (intraday) price of a stock over the past 52 weeks, adjusted for any stock splits.

Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)

Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.

Host security

The security to which a warrant is attached.

Hybrid security

A convertible security whose optioned common stock is trading in a middle range, causing
the convertible security to trade with the characteristics of both a fixed-income security and a common stock

Intercompany transaction

Transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation.

Invoice price

The price that the buyer of a futures contract must pay the seller when a Treasury Bond is delivered.

Law of one price

An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price regardless of the
means by which one goes about creating that security. This implies that if the payoff of a security can be
synthetically created by a package of other securities, the price of the package and the price of the security
whose payoff it replicates must be equal.

law of one price

Theory that prices of goods in all countries should be equal when translated to a common currency.

Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation
Limitation on asset dispositions A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major

Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation

Low price

This is the day's lowest price of a security that has changed hands between a buyer and a seller.

Low price-earnings ratio effect

The tendency of portfolios of stocks with a low price-earnings ratio to
outperform portfolios consisting of stocks with a high price-earnings ratio.

Market conversion price

Also called conversion parity price, the price that an investor effectively pays for
common stock by purchasing a convertible security and then exercising the conversion option. This price is
equal to the market price of the convertible security divided by the conversion ratio.

Market price of risk

A measure of the extra return, or risk premium, that investors demand to bear risk. The
reward-to-risk ratio of the market portfolio.

Market prices

The amount of money that a willing buyer pays to acquire something from a willing seller,
when a buyer and seller are independent and when such an exchange is motivated by only commercial

Marketable security

An easily traded investment, such as treasury bills, which is
recorded as a current asset, since it is easily convertible into cash.

Marketplace price efficiency

The degree to which the prices of assets reflect the available marketplace
information. Marketplace price efficiency is sometimes estimated as the difficulty faced by active
management of earning a greater return than passive management would, after adjusting for the risk
associated with a strategy and the transactions costs associated with implementing a strategy.

material price variance

total actual cost of material purchased
minus (actual quantity of material  standard
price); it is the amount of money spent below (favorable)
or in excess (unfavorable) of the standard price for the
quantity of materials purchased; it can be calculated based
on the actual quantity of material purchased or the actual
quantity used

Materials price variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted cost to
acquire materials, multiplied by the total number of units purchased.

Maximum price fluctuation

The maximum amount the contract price can change, up or down, during one
trading session, as fixed by exchange rules in the contract specification. Related: limit price.

Minimum price fluctuation

Smallest increment of price movement possible in trading a given contract. Also
called point or tick. The zero-beta portfolio with the least risk.

Monetarist Rule

Proposal that the money supply be increased at a steady rate equal approximately to the real rate of growth of the economy. Contrast with discretionary policy.

Monthly income preferred security (MIP)

Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven.
The subsidiary relends the money to the parent.

Mortgage pass-through security

Also called a passthrough, a security created when one or more mortgage
holders form a collection (pool) of mortgages sells shares or participation certificates in the pool. The cash
flow from the collateral pool is "passed through" to the security holder as monthly payments of principal,
interest, and prepayments. This is the predominant type of MBS traded in the secondary market.

Multirule system

A technical trading strategy that combines mechanical rules, such as the CRISMA
(cumulative volume, relative strength, moving average) Trading System of Pruitt and White.

negotiated transfer price

an intracompany charge for goods
or services set through a process of negotiation between
the selling and purchasing unit managers

Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

Nominal price

price quotations on futures for a period in which no actual trading took place.

Nonmarketable Security

A debt or equity security for which there is no posted price or bidand-
ask quotation available on a securities exchange or over-the-counter market.

Opening price

The range of prices at which the first bids and offers were made or first transactions were

Optimum selling price

The price at which profit is maximized, which takes into account the cost behaviour of fixed and variable costs and the relationship between price and demand for a product/service.

Option price

Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right
to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.

Overbought/oversold indicator

An indicator that attempts to define when prices have moved too far and too
fast in either direction and thus are vulnerable to reaction.

Overreaction hypothesis

The supposition that investors overreact to unanticipated news, resulting in
exaggerated movement in stock prices followed by corrections.

Picking transaction

Withdrawing parts or subassemblies from stock in order to
manufacture subassemblies or finished products.

Policy Rule

A formula for determining policy. Contrast with discretionary policy.

Presold issue An issue

that is sold out before the coupon announcement.

Price Adjuster

A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting price rather than quantity. Contrast with quantity adjuster.

Price/book ratio

Compares a stock's market value to the value of total assets less total liabilities (book
value). Determined by dividing current stock price by common stockholder equity per share (book value),
adjusted for stock splits. Also called Market-to-Book.

Price compression

The limitation of the price appreciation potential for a callable bond in a declining interest
rate environment, based on the expectation that the bond will be redeemed at the call price.







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