Financial Terms Equivalent annual cash flow

# Definition of Equivalent annual cash flow

## Equivalent annual cash flow

Annuity with the same net present value as the company's proposed investment.

# Related Terms:

## NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

## PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in todayâ€™s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

## Annual fund operating expenses

For investment companies, the management fee and "other expenses,"
including the expenses for maintaining shareholder records, providing shareholders with financial statements,
and providing custodial and accounting services. For 12b-1 funds, selling and marketing costs are included.

## Annual percentage rate (APR)

The periodic rate times the number of periods in a year. For example, a 5%
quarterly return has an APR of 20%.

## Annual percentage yield (APY)

The effective, or true, annual rate of return. The APY is the rate actually
earned or paid in one year, taking into account the affect of compounding. The APY is calculated by taking
one plus the periodic rate and raising it to the number of periods in a year. For example, a 1% per month rate
has an APY of 12.68% (1.01^12).

## Annual report

Yearly record of a publicly held company's financial condition. It includes a description of the
firm's operations, its balance sheet and income statement. SEC rules require that it be distributed to all
shareholders. A more detailed version is called a 10-K.

## Annualized gain

If stock X appreciates 1.5% in one month, the annualized gain for that sock over a twelve
month period is 12*1.5% = 18%. Compounded over the twelve month period, the gain is (1.015)^12 = 19.6%.

## Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.

## Bond equivalent yield

Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual
effective yield.

## Bond-equivalent basis

The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.

## Bond-equivalent yield

The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.

## Cash

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually
includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. cash
equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

## Cash budget

A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
expected cash and loan balances.

## Cash and carry

Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed
with a loan or repo.

## Cash and equivalents

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a
company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's
Acceptances. cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

## Cash commodity

The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.

## Cash conversion cycle

The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash
from accounts receivable.

## Cash cow

A company that pays out all earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or
division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow.

## Cash cycle

In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital
management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.

## Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.

## Cash delivery

The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but
settlement according to the cash value of the asset.

## Cash discount

An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
period, such as ten days.

## Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in

## Cash equivalent

A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial
equivalent of cash.

## Cash flow

In investments, it represents earnings before depreciation , amortization and non-cash charges.
Sometimes called cash earnings. cash flow from operations (called funds from operations ) by real estate and
other investment trusts is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.

## Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

## Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.

## Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.

## Cash flow matching

Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in
which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the
last liability to assure all required cash flows.

## Cash flow per common share

cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.

## Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

## Cash-flow break-even point

The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing
or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.

## Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.

## Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.

## Cash offer

A public equity issue that is sold to all interested investors.

## Cash ratio

The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

## Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.

## Cash transaction

A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.

## Cash-equivalent items

Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality
investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Cashout

Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

## Certainty equivalent

An amount that would be accepted in lieu of a chance at a possible higher, but
uncertain, amount.

## Common stock equivalent

A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned

## Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.

## Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

## Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Future cash flows multiplied by discount factors to obtain present values.

## Discretionary cash flow

cash flow that is available after the funding of all positive NPV capital investment
projects; it is available for paying cash dividends, repurchasing common stock, retiring debt, and so on.

## Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding.

## Effective annual yield

annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.

## Equivalent annual annuity

The equivalent amount per year for some number of years that has a present
value equal to a given amount.

## Equivalent annual benefit

The equivalent annual annuity for the net present value of an investment project.

## Equivalent annual cost

The equivalent cost per year of owning an asset over its entire life.

## Equivalent bond yield

annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be
comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities.

## Equivalent loan

Given the after-tax stream associated with a lease, the maximum amount of conventional
debt that the same period-by-period after-tax debt service stream is capable of supporting.

## Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

## Expected future cash flows

Projected future cash flows associated with an asset of decision.

## Fixed-income equivalent

Also called a busted convertible, a convertible security that is trading like a straight
security because the optioned common stock is trading low.

## Flower bond

Government bonds that are acceptable at par in payment of federal estate taxes when owned by
the decedent at the time of death.

## Flow-through basis

An account for the investment credit to show all income statement benefits of the credit
in the year of acquisition, rather than spreading them over the life of the asset acquired.

## Flow-through method

The practice of reporting to shareholders using straight-line depreciation and
accelerated depreciation for tax purposes and "flowing through" the lower income taxes actually paid to the
financial statement prepared for shareholders.

## Free cash flows

cash not required for operations or for reinvestment. Often defined as earnings before
interest (often obtained from operating income line on the income statement) less capital expenditures less the
change in working capital.

## General cash offer

A public offering made to investors at large.

## Incremental cash flows

Difference between the firm's cash flows with and without a project.

## Ledger cash

A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called book cash.

## Net cash balance

Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.

## Nominal annual rate

An effective rate per period multiplied by the number of periods in a year.

## Nominal cash flow

A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received or paid out are given.

## Noncash charge

A cost, such as depreciation, depletion, and amortization, that does not involve any cash outflow.

## Operating cash flow

Earnings before depreciation minus taxes. It measures the cash generated from
operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements.

## Price-specie-flow mechanism

Adjustment mechanism under the classical gold standard whereby
disturbances in the price level in one country would be wholly or partly offset by a countervailing flow of
specie (gold coins) that would act to equalize prices across countries and automatically bring international
payments back in balance.

## Production-flow commitment

An agreement by the loan purchaser to allow the monthly loan quota to be
delivered in batches.

## Real cash flow

A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash
flow is given.

## Scheduled cash flows

The mortgage principal and interest payments due to be paid under the terms of the
mortgage not including possible prepayments.

## Stated annual interest rate

The interest rate expressed as a per annum percentage, by which interest
payment is determined.

## Statement of cash flows

A financial statement showing a firm's cash receipts and cash payments during a
specified period.

## Statement-of-cash-flows method

A method of cash budgeting that is organized along the lines of the statement of cash flows.

## Symmetric cash matching

An extension of cash flow matching that allows for the short-term borrowing of
funds to satisfy a liability prior to the liability due date, resulting in a reduction in the cost of funding liabilities.

## Target cash balance

Optimal amount of cash for a firm to hold, considering the trade-off between the
opportunity costs of holding too much cash and the trading costs of holding too little cash.

## Wallflower

Stock that has fallen out of favor with investors; tends to have a low P/E (price to earnings ratio).

## Wanted for cash

A statement displayed on market tickers indicating that a bidder will pay cash for same day
settlement of a block of a specified security.

## CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

The balance in a companyâ€™s checking account(s) plus short-term or temporary investments (sometimes called â€śmarketable securitiesâ€ť), which are highly liquid.

## CASH-FLOW STATEMENT

A statement that shows where a companyâ€™s cash came from and where it went for a period of time, such as a year.

## CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES

A section on the cash-flow statement that shows how much cash a company raised by selling stocks or bonds this year and how much was paid out for cash dividends and other finance-related obligations.

## CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES

A section on the cashflow statement that shows how much cash came in and went out because of various investing activities like purchasing machinery.

## CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS

A section on the cash-flow Stockholdersâ€™ equity statement that shows how much cash came into a company and how much went out during the normal course of business.

## Annual Report

The report required by the Stock Exchange for all listed companies, containing the companyâ€™s financial statements.

## Cash accounting

A method of accounting in which profit is calculated as the difference between income
when it is received and expenses when they are paid.

## Cash cost

The amount of cash expended.

## Cash Flow statement

A financial report that shows the movement in cash for a business during an accounting period.

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an
investment to the initial capital investment.

## Discounted cash flow (DCF)

A method of investment appraisal that discounts future cash flows to present value using a discount rate, which is the risk-adjusted cost of capital.

## Cash

Amounts held in currency and coin (commonly referred to as petty cash) and amounts on deposit in financial institutions.
cash disbursement journal
A journal used to record the transactions that result in a credit to cash.

## Cash receipts journal

A journal used to record the transactions that result in a debit to cash.

## Petty cash

The amount of currency and coin that a company keeps on hand to pay for small purchases and expenses.

## Statement of Cash Flows

One of the basic financial statements; it lists the cash inflows and cash outflows of the company, grouped into the categories of operating activities, financing activities, and investing activities. The Statement of cash flows is prepared for a specified period of time.

## cash burn rate

A relatively recent term that refers to how fast a business
is using up its available cash, especially when its cash flow from operating
activities is negative instead of positive. This term most often refers
to a business struggling through its start-up or early phases that has not
yet generated enough cash inflow from sales to cover its cash outflow for
expenses (and perhaps never will).

## cash flow

An obvious but at the same time elusive term that refers to cash
inflows and outflows during a period. But the specific sources and uses
of cash flows are not clear in this general term. The statement of cash
flows, which is one of the three primary financial statements of a business,
classifies cash flows into three types: those from operating activities
(sales and expenses, or profit-making operations), those from
investing activities, and those from financing activities. Sometimes the
term cash flow is used as shorthand for cash flow from profit (i.e., cash
flow from operating activities).

## cash flow from operating activities, or cash flow from profit

This equals the cash inflow from sales during the period minus the cash
outflow for expenses during the period. Keep in mind that to measure
net income, generally accepted accounting principles require the use of
accrual-basis accounting. Starting with the amount of accrual-basis net
inventories, prepaid expenses, and operating liabilitiesâ€”and depreciation
expense is added back (as well as any other noncash outlay
expense)â€”to arrive at cash flow from profit, which is formally labeled
cash flow from operating activities in the externally reported statement
of cash flows.

## statement of cash flows

One of the three primary financial statements
that a business includes in the periodic financial reports to its outside
shareowners and lenders. This financial statement summarizes the businessâ€™s
cash inflows and outflows for the period according to a threefold
classification: (1) cash flow from operating activities (cash flow from
profit), (2) cash flow from investing activities, and (3) cash flow from
financing activities. Frankly, the typical statement of cash flows is difficult
to read and decipher; it includes too many lines of information and
is fairly technical compared with the typical balance sheet and income
statement.