Financial Terms Endogenous

# Definition of Endogenous

## Endogenous

Determined from within the system. Opposite of exogenous.

# Related Terms:

## Endogenous variable

A value determined within the context of a model.

## Variable

A value determined within the context of a model. Also called endogenous variable.

## economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.

## Gordon model

present value of a perpetuity with growth.
The end-ofyear Gordon model formula is: 1/(r - g)
and the midyear formula is: SQRT(1 + r)/(r - g).

## log size model

Abrams’ model to calculate discount rates as a function of the logarithm of the value of the firm.

## NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

## PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

## QMDM (quantitative marketability discount model)

model for calculating DLOM for minority interests r the discount rate

## Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

## Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.

## Asset pricing model

A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.

## Asset pricing model

A model, such as the Capital Asset Pricing model (CAPM), that determines the required
rate of return on a particular asset.

## Binomial option pricing model

An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.

## Black-Scholes option-pricing model

A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses
the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the standard deviation
of the stock return.

## Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.

## Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

## Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

## Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security

Book value.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).

## Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.

## Constant-growth model

Also called the Gordon-Shapiro model, an application of the dividend discount
model which assumes (1) a fixed growth rate for future dividends and (2) a single discount rate.

## Continuous random variable

A random value that can take any fractional value within specified ranges, as
contrasted with a discrete variable.

## Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.

## Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models

## Discounted dividend model (DDM)

A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
present value of all expected future dividends.

## Discrete random variable

A random variable that can take only a certain specified set of discrete possible
values - for example, the positive integers 1, 2, 3, . . .

## Dividend discount model (DDM)

A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on the
present value of the expected cash flows.

## Dividend growth model

A model wherein dividends are assumed to be at a constant rate in perpetuity.

## Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.

## European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.

## Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.

## Exogenous variable

A variable whose value is determined outside the model in which it is used. Also called
a parameter.

## Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

## Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

## Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.

## Extrapolative statistical models

models that apply a formula to historical data and project results for a
future period. Such models include the simple linear trend model, the simple exponential model, and the
simple autoregressive model.

See: Par value.

## Factor model

A way of decomposing the factors that influence a security's rate of return into common and
firm-specific influences.

## Federal Reserve System

The central bank of the U.S., established in 1913, and governed by the Federal
Reserve Board located in Washington, D.C. The system includes 12 Federal Reserve Banks and is authorized
to regulate monetary policy in the U.S. as well as to supervise Federal Reserve member banks, bank holding
companies, international operations of U.S.banks, and U.S.operations of foreign banks.

## Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

## Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.

## Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

## Garmen-Kohlhagen option pricing model

A widely used model for pricing foreign currency options.

## Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend Also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.

## Index model

A model of stock returns using a market index such as the S&P 500 to represent common or
systematic risk factors.

## Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

## Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.

## Investment value

Related:straight value.

## Just-in-time inventory systems

systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.

## Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

## Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

## Market model

This relationship is sometimes called the single-index model. The market model says that the
return on a security depends on the return on the market portfolio and the extent of the security's
responsiveness as measured, by beta. In addition, the return will Also depend on conditions that are unique to
the firm. Graphically, the market model can be depicted as a line fitted to a plot of asset returns against
returns on the market portfolio.

## Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.

## Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

## Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

## Maturity value

Related: par value.

## Modeling

The process of creating a depiction of reality, such as a graph, picture, or mathematical
representation.

## Multirule system

A technical trading strategy that combines mechanical rules, such as the CRISMA
(cumulative volume, relative strength, moving average) Trading system of Pruitt and White.

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

## Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.

## Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any

## Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.

## Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.

## Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

## Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

## Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.

## Nonsystematic risk

Nonmarket or firm-specific risk factors that can be eliminated by diversification. Also
called unique risk or diversifiable risk. systematic risk refers to risk factors common to the entire economy.

## Normal random variable

A random variable that has a normal probability distribution.

## Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.

## Par value

Also called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date.

## Parity value

Related:conversion value

## Pie model of capital structure

A model of the debt/equity ratio of the firms, graphically depicted in slices of
a pie that represent the value of the firm in the capital markets.

## Present value

The amount of cash today that is equivalent in value to a payment, or to a stream of payments,
to be received in the future.

## Present value factor

Factor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in
a future period.

## Present value of growth opportunities (NPV)

Net present value of investments the firm is expected to make
in the future.

## Price value of a basis point (PVBP)

Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in
the price of the bond if the required yield changes by one basis point.

## Progressive tax system

A tax system wherein the average tax rate increases for some increases in income but
never decreases with an increase in income.

## Random variable

A function that assigns a real number to each and every possible outcome of a random experiment.

## Relative value

The attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to
another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.

## Replacement value

Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.

## Residual value

Usually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires.

## Salvage value

Scrap value of plant and equipment.

## Single factor model

A model of security returns that acknowledges only one common factor.
See: factor model.

## Single index model

A model of stock returns that decomposes influences on returns into a systematic factor,
as measured by the return on the broad market index, and firm specific factors.

## Simple linear trend model

An extrapolative statistical model that asserts that earnings have a base level and
grow at a constant amount each period.

## Single-index model

Related: market model

## Split-rate tax system

A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are
distributed as dividends.

## Standardized value

Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by
the standard deviation of the distribution.

## Stochastic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash flows
are uncertain. Related: Deterministic models.

## Straight value

Also called investment value, the value of a convertible security without the con-version option.

## Systematic risk

Also called undiversifiable risk or market risk, the minimum level of risk that can be
obtained for a portfolio by means of diversification across a large number of randomly chosen assets. Related:
unsystematic risk.

## Systematic risk principle

Only the systematic portion of risk matters in large, well-diversified portfolios.
The, expected returns must be related only to systematic risks.

## Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.

## Time value of an option

The portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining
until the expiration date of the option contract, and that the underlying components that determine the value of
the option may change during that time. Time value is generally equal to the difference between the premium
and the intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

## Time value of money

The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar
received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.

## Two-factor model

Black's zero-beta version of the capital asset pricing model.

## Two-state option pricing model

An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
possible (discrete) values in the next time period for each value it can take on in the preceding time period.
Also called the binomial option pricing model.