Definition of decision making
the process of choosing among the alternative
solutions available to a course of action or a problem
a formal process for gathering and analyzing information and producing intelligence to meet decision making needs; requires information about
internal processes as well as knowledge, technologies, and competitors
The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.
This first-line measure of profit
equals sales revenue less cost of goods sold. This is profit before operating
expenses and interest and income tax expenses are deducted. Financial
reporting standards require that gross margin be reported in
external income statements. Gross margin is a key variable in management
profit reports for decision making and control. Gross margin
doesn’t apply to service businesses that don’t sell products.
the manner in which authority and
responsibility for decision making is distributed in an entity
a budget that has been developed
through a process of joint decision making by top management
and operating personnel
The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.
decision as to which real assets the firm should acquire.
Method of representing alternative sequential decisions and the possible outcomes from these decisions.
Diagram of sequential decisions and possible outcomes.
an unknown item for which a linear programming
problem is being solved
a judgment made regarding the method
of raising funds that will be used to make acquisitions; it
is based on an entity’s ability to issue and service debt and
decision as to how to raise the money to pay for investments in real assets.
decisions concerning the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the firm's balance
sheet, such as the decision to issue bonds.
a judgment about which assets will be
acquired by an entity to achieve its stated objectives
decisions concerning the asset side of a firm's balance sheet, such as the decision to
offer a new product.
a decision that compares the cost of
internally manufacturing a component of a final product
(or providing a service function) with the cost of purchasing
it from outside suppliers (outsourcing) or from another
division of the company at a specified transfer price
Refers to the seller's actually turning over to the buyer the asset agreed upon in a forward contract.
decisions concerning the operation of the firm, such as the choice of firm size, firm
growth rates, and employee compensation.
Mutually exclusive investment decisions
Investment decisions in which the acceptance of a project
precludes the acceptance of one or more alternative projects.
see make-or-buy decision
the second decision made in capital project evaluation in which projects are ranked according to their impact on the achievement of company objectives
the first decision made in evaluating capital
projects; it indicates whether a project is desirable based
on some previously established minimum criterion or criteria
(see also preference decision)
Security selection decision
Choosing the particular securities to include in a portfolio.
special order decision
a situation in which management must determine a sales price to charge for manufacturing or service jobs outside the company’s normal production/service market
A broad, all-inclusive term that refers to the methods and procedures
of financial record keeping by a business (or any entity); it also
refers to the main functions and purposes of record keeping, which are
to assist in the operations of the entity, to provide necessary information
to managers for making decisions and exercising control, to measure
profit, to comply with income and other tax laws, and to prepare financial
The margin that results when variable production costs are subtracted
from revenue. It is most useful for making incremental pricing decisions
where a company must cover its variable costs, though perhaps not all of its fixed
a management style that exists when top
management grants subordinate managers a significant degree
of autonomy and independence in operating and making
decisions for their organizational units
A discipline concerned with determining value and making decisions. The finance function allocates
resources, which includes acquiring, investing, and managing resources.
financial reports and statements
Financial means having to do with
money and economic wealth. Statement means a formal presentation.
Financial reports are printed and a copy is sent to each owner and each
major lender of the business. Most public corporations make their financial
reports available on a web site, so all or part of the financial report
can be downloaded by anyone. Businesses prepare three primary financial
statements: the statement of financial condition, or balance sheet;
the statement of cash flows; and the income statement. These three key
financial statements constitute the core of the periodic financial reports
that are distributed outside a business to its shareowners and lenders.
Financial reports also include footnotes to the financial statements and
much other information. Financial statements are prepared according to
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which are the authoritative
rules that govern the measurement of net income and the reporting
of profit-making activities, financial condition, and cash flows.
Internal financial statements, although based on the same profit
accounting methods, report more information to managers for decision
making and control. Sometimes, financial statements are called simply
The production of financial and non-financial information used in planning for the future; making decisions about products, services, prices and what costs to incur; and ensuring that plans are implemented and achieved.
This concept refers to a separate source of revenue and
profit within a business organization, which should be identified for
management analysis and control. A profit module may focus on one
product or a cluster of products. Profit in this context is not the final, bottom-
line net income of the business as a whole. Rather, other measures
of profit are used for management analysis and decision-making purposes—
such as gross margin, contribution margin, or operating profit
(earnings before interest and income tax).
A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a random element that is
designed to reduce the information content of the decision-maker's observed choices.
Operating expenses that vary in proportion to
changes in total sales revenue (total dollars of sales). Examples are sales
commissions based on sales revenue, credit card discount expenses, and
rents and franchise fees based on sales revenue. These expenses are one
of the key variables in a profit model. Segregating these expenses from
other types of expenses that behave differently is essential for management
decision-making analysis. (These expenses are not disclosed separately
in externally reported income statements.)
A budget cost for materials and labour used for decision-making, usually expressed as a per unit cost that is applied to standard quantities from a bill of materials and to standard times from a
A cost that has been paid and cannot be undone or reversed.
Once the cost has been paid, it is irretrievable, like water over the dam
or spilled milk. Usually, the term refers to the recorded value of an asset
that has lost its value in the operating activities of a business. Examples
are the costs of products in inventory that cannot be sold and fixed
assets that are no longer usable. The book value of these assets should
be written off to expense. These costs should be disregarded in making
decisions about what to do with the assets (except that the income tax
effects of disposing of the assets should be taken into account).
Expenses that vary in close proportion to changes
in total sales volume (total quantities of sales). Examples of these types of
expenses are delivery costs, packaging costs, and other costs that depend
mainly on the number of products sold or the number of customers
served. These expenses are one of the key factors in a profit model for
decision-making analysis. Segregating these expenses from other types
of expenses that behave differently is essential for management decisionmaking
analysis. The cost-of-goods-sold expense depends on sales volume
and is a unit-driven expense. But product cost (i.e., the cost of
goods sold) is such a dominant expense that it is treated separately from
other unit-driven operating expenses.
The profit per unit sold of a product after deducting product
cost and variable expenses of selling the product from the sales price of
the product. Unit margin equals profit before fixed operating expenses
are considered and before interest and income tax are deducted. Unit
margin is one of the key variables in a profit model for decision-making
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