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Definition of Commodity

Commodity Image 1

Commodity

A commodity is food, metal, or another physical substance that investors buy or sell, usually via
futures contracts.



Related Terms:

Cash commodity

The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.


Actuals

The physical commodity underlying a futures contract. Cash commodity, physical.


Call

a. An option to buy a certain quantity of a stock or commodity for a
specified price within a specified time. See Put.
b. A demand to submit bonds to the issuer for redemption before the maturity date.
c. A demand for payment of a debt.
d. A demand for payment due on stock bought on margin.


Car

A loose quantity term sometimes used to describe a the amount of a commodity underlying one
commodity contract; e.g., "a car of bellies." Derived from the fact that quantities of the product specified in a
contract used to correspond closely to the capacity of a railroad car.


CFTC

The commodity Futures Trading Commission is the federal agency created by Congress to regulate
futures trading. The commodity Exchange Act of 1974 became effective April 21, 1975. Previously, futures
trading had been regulated by the commodity Exchange Authority of the USDA.



Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)

The location of five New York futures exchanges: commodity
Exchange, Inc. (COMEX), the New York Mercantile exchange (NYMEX), the New York Cotton Exchange,
the Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa exchange (CSC), and the New York futures exchange (NYFE). common size
statement A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of
analyzing trends and the changing relationship between financial statement items. For example, all items in
each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales.


Contract

A term of reference describing a unit of trading for a financial or commodity future. Also, the actual
bilateral agreement between the buyer and seller of a transaction as defined by an exchange.


Commodity Image 2

Convenience yield

The extra advantage that firms derive from holding the commodity rather than the future.


Convergence

The movement of the price of a futures contract toward the price of the underlying cash
commodity. At the start, the contract price is higher because of the time value. But as the contract nears
expiration, the futures price and the cash price converge.


Corner A Market

To purchase enough of the available supply of a commodity or stock in order to
manipulate its price.


Creditor (Credit Insurance)

A lender or lending institution that offers financing and loans to a borrower, for the purpose of acquiring a commodity.


Delivery

The tender and receipt of an actual commodity or financial instrument in settlement of a futures contract.


Delivery points

Those points designated by futures exchanges at which the financial instrument or
commodity covered by a futures contract may be delivered in fulfillment of such contract.


Fixed-exchange rate

A country's decision to tie the value of its currency to another country's currency, gold
(or another commodity), or a basket of currencies.


Forward contract

A cash market transaction in which delivery of the commodity is deferred until after the
contract has been made. It is not standardized and is not traded on organized exchanges. Although the
delivery is made in the future, the price is determined at the initial trade date.


Forward market

A market in which participants agree to trade some commodity, security, or foreign
exchange at a fixed price for future delivery.


Commodity Image 3

Future

A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical
commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange.


Futures

A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical
commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange.



Futures market

A market in which contracts for future delivery of a commodity or a security are bought or sold.


Moving average

Used in charts and technical analysis, the average of security or commodity prices
constructed in a period as short as a few days or as Long as several years and showing trends for the latest
interval. As each new variable is included in calculating the average, the last variable of the series is deleted.


Nearby

The nearest active trading month of a financial or commodity futures market. Related: deferred futures


Open contracts

Contracts which have been bought or sold without the transaction having been completed by
subsequent sale or purchase, or by making or taking actual delivery of the financial instrument or physical
commodity.


Position

A market commitment; the number of contracts bought or sold for which no offsetting transaction
has been entered into. The buyer of a commodity is said to have a long position and the seller of a commodity
is said to have a short position . Related: open contracts


Premium

1) Amount paid for a bond above the par value.
2) The price of an option contract; also, in futures
trading, the amount the futures price exceeds the price of the spot commodity. Related: inverted market premium payback period. Also called break-even time, the time it takes to recover the premium per share of a
convertible security.


Round-turn

Procedure by which the Long or short position of an individual is offset by an opposite
transaction or by accepting or making delivery of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity.


Short hedge

The sale of a futures contract(s) to eliminate or lessen the possible decline in value ownership of
an approximately equal amount of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity.
Related: Long hedge.


Spot price

The current marketprice of the actual physical commodity. Also called cash price.


Spot trade

The purchase and sale of a foreign currency, commodity, or other item for immediate delivery.



Spread

1) The gap between bid and ask prices of a stock or other security.
2) The simultaneous purchase and sale of separate futures or options contracts for the same commodity for delivery in different months.
Also known as a straddle.
3) Difference between the price at which an underwriter buys an issue from a firm
and the price at which the underwriter sells it to the public.
4) The price an issuer pays above a benchmark fixed-income yield to borrow money.


Trading range

The difference between the high and low prices traded during a period of time;
with commodities, the high/low price limit established by the exchange for a specific commodity for any one day's trading.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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