Financial Terms Cash-flow break-even point

# Definition of Cash-flow break-even point

## Cash-flow break-even point

The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing
or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.

# Related Terms:

## NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

## PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in todayâ€™s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

## Basis point

In the bond market, the smallest measure used for quoting yields is a basis point. Each percentage
point of yield in bonds equals 100 basis points. Basis points also are used for interest rates. An interest rate of
5% is 50 basis points greater than an interest rate of 4.5%.

## Bond points

A conventional unit of measure for bond prices set at \$10 and equivalent to 1% of the \$100 face
value of the bond. A price of 80 means that the bond is selling at 80% of its face, or par value.

## Break

A rapid and sharp price decline.

## Break-even analysis

An analysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit.

## Break-even lease payment

The lease payment at which a party to a prospective lease is indifferent between
entering and not entering into the lease arrangement.

## Break-even payment rate

The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of
a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon
the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower
than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.

## Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.

## Breakout

A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its previous high price) or drop
below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing
move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator.

## Cash

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually
includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. cash
equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

## Cash budget

A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
expected cash and loan balances.

## Cash and carry

Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed
with a loan or repo.

## Cash and equivalents

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a
company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's
Acceptances. cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

## Cash commodity

The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.

## Cash conversion cycle

The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash
from accounts receivable.

## Cash cow

A company that pays out all earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or
division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow.

## Cash cycle

In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital
management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.

## Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.

## Cash delivery

The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but
settlement according to the cash value of the asset.

## Cash discount

An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
period, such as ten days.

## Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in

## Cash equivalent

A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial
equivalent of cash.

## Cash flow

In investments, it represents earnings before depreciation , amortization and non-cash charges.
Sometimes called cash earnings. cash flow from operations (called funds from operations ) by real estate and
other investment trusts is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.

## Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

## Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.

## Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.

## Cash flow matching

Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in
which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the
last liability to assure all required cash flows.

## Cash flow per common share

cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.

## Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

## Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.

## Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.

## Cash offer

A public equity issue that is sold to all interested investors.

## Cash ratio

The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

## Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.

## Cash transaction

A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.

## Cash-equivalent items

Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality
investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Cashout

Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

## Delivery points

Those points designated by futures exchanges at which the financial instrument or
commodity covered by a futures contract may be delivered in fulfillment of such contract.

## Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Future cash flows multiplied by discount factors to obtain present values.

## Discretionary cash flow

cash flow that is available after the funding of all positive NPV capital investment
projects; it is available for paying cash dividends, repurchasing common stock, retiring debt, and so on.

## Equivalent annual cash flow

Annuity with the same net present value as the company's proposed investment.

## Evening up

Buying or selling to offset an existing market position.

## Event risk

The risk that the ability of an issuer to make interest and principal payments will change because
of rare, discontinuous, and very large, unanticipated changes in the market environment such as (1) a natural
or industrial accident or some regulatory change or (2) a takeover or corporate restructuring.

## Event study

A statistical study that examines how the release of information affects prices at a particular time.

## Events of default

Contractually specified events that allow lenders to demand immediate repayment of a debt.

## Expected future cash flows

Projected future cash flows associated with an asset of decision.

## Flower bond

Government bonds that are acceptable at par in payment of federal estate taxes when owned by
the decedent at the time of death.

## Flow-through basis

An account for the investment credit to show all income statement benefits of the credit
in the year of acquisition, rather than spreading them over the life of the asset acquired.

## Flow-through method

The practice of reporting to shareholders using straight-line depreciation and
accelerated depreciation for tax purposes and "flowing through" the lower income taxes actually paid to the
financial statement prepared for shareholders.

## Free cash flows

cash not required for operations or for reinvestment. Often defined as earnings before
interest (often obtained from operating income line on the income statement) less capital expenditures less the
change in working capital.

## General cash offer

A public offering made to investors at large.

## Group of seven (G7/G-7)

The G-5 countries plus Canada and Italy.

## Incremental cash flows

Difference between the firm's cash flows with and without a project.

## Industrial revenue bond (IRB)

Bond issued by local government agencies on behalf of corporations.

## Ledger cash

A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called book cash.

## Net cash balance

Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.

## Nominal cash flow

A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received or paid out are given.

## Noncash charge

A cost, such as depreciation, depletion, and amortization, that does not involve any cash outflow.

## Operating cash flow

Earnings before depreciation minus taxes. It measures the cash generated from
operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements.

## Point

The smallest unit of price change quoted or, one one-hundredth of a percent. Related: minimum price
fluctuation and tick.

## Point and figure chart

A price-only chart that takes into account only whole integer changes in price, i.e., a
2-point change. point and figure charting disregards the element of time and is solely used to record changes
in price.

## Price value of a basis point (PVBP)

Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in
the price of the bond if the required yield changes by one basis point.

## Price-specie-flow mechanism

Adjustment mechanism under the classical gold standard whereby
disturbances in the price level in one country would be wholly or partly offset by a countervailing flow of
specie (gold coins) that would act to equalize prices across countries and automatically bring international
payments back in balance.

## Production-flow commitment

An agreement by the loan purchaser to allow the monthly loan quota to be
delivered in batches.

## Real cash flow

A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash
flow is given.

## Revenue bond

A bond issued by a municipality to finance either a project or an enterprise where the issuer
pledges to the bondholders the revenues generated by the operating projects financed, for instance, hospital
revenue bonds and sewer revenue bonds.

## Revenue fund

A fund accounting for all revenues from an enterprise financed by a municipal revenue bond.

## Scheduled cash flows

The mortgage principal and interest payments due to be paid under the terms of the
mortgage not including possible prepayments.

## Statement of cash flows

A financial statement showing a firm's cash receipts and cash payments during a
specified period.

## Statement-of-cash-flows method

A method of cash budgeting that is organized along the lines of the statement of cash flows.

## Symmetric cash matching

An extension of cash flow matching that allows for the short-term borrowing of
funds to satisfy a liability prior to the liability due date, resulting in a reduction in the cost of funding liabilities.

## Target cash balance

Optimal amount of cash for a firm to hold, considering the trade-off between the
opportunity costs of holding too much cash and the trading costs of holding too little cash.

## Total revenue

Total sales and other revenue for the period shown. Known as "turnover" in the UK.

## Wallflower

Stock that has fallen out of favor with investors; tends to have a low P/E (price to earnings ratio).

## Wanted for cash

A statement displayed on market tickers indicating that a bidder will pay cash for same day
settlement of a block of a specified security.

## CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

The balance in a companyâ€™s checking account(s) plus short-term or temporary investments (sometimes called â€śmarketable securitiesâ€ť), which are highly liquid.

## CASH-FLOW STATEMENT

A statement that shows where a companyâ€™s cash came from and where it went for a period of time, such as a year.

## CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES

A section on the cash-flow statement that shows how much cash a company raised by selling stocks or bonds this year and how much was paid out for cash dividends and other finance-related obligations.

## CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES

A section on the cashflow statement that shows how much cash came in and went out because of various investing activities like purchasing machinery.

## CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS

A section on the cash-flow Stockholdersâ€™ equity statement that shows how much cash came into a company and how much went out during the normal course of business.

## NET SALES (revenue)

The amount sold after customersâ€™ returns, sales discounts, and other allowances are taken away from
gross sales. (Companies usually just show the net sales amount on their income statements, omitting returns, allowances, and the like.)

## Breakeven point

The point at which total costs equal total revenue, i.e. where there is neither a profit nor a loss.

## Cash accounting

A method of accounting in which profit is calculated as the difference between income
when it is received and expenses when they are paid.

## Cash cost

The amount of cash expended.

## Cash Flow statement

A financial report that shows the movement in cash for a business during an accounting period.

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an
investment to the initial capital investment.

## Discounted cash flow (DCF)

A method of investment appraisal that discounts future cash flows to present value using a discount rate, which is the risk-adjusted cost of capital.

## Revenue

Income earned from the sale of goods and services.

## Cash

Amounts held in currency and coin (commonly referred to as petty cash) and amounts on deposit in financial institutions.
cash disbursement journal
A journal used to record the transactions that result in a credit to cash.

## Cash receipts journal

A journal used to record the transactions that result in a debit to cash.

## Petty cash

The amount of currency and coin that a company keeps on hand to pay for small purchases and expenses.

## Revenue

Amounts earned by the company from the sale of merchandise or services; often used interchangeably with the term sales.

## Statement of Cash Flows

One of the basic financial statements; it lists the cash inflows and cash outflows of the company, grouped into the categories of operating activities, financing activities, and investing activities. The Statement of cash flows is prepared for a specified period of time.

## Unearned revenue

Money that has been paid by customers for work yet to be done or goods yet to be provided.

## breakeven point

The annual sales volume level at which total contribution
margin equals total annual fixed expenses. The breakeven point is only a
point of reference, not the goal of a business, of course. It is computed by
dividing total fixed expenses by unit margin. The breakeven point is
quite useful in analyzing profit behavior and operating leverage. Also, it
gives manager a good point of reference for setting sales goals and
understanding the consequences of incurring fixed costs for a period.

## cash burn rate

A relatively recent term that refers to how fast a business
is using up its available cash, especially when its cash flow from operating
activities is negative instead of positive. This term most often refers
to a business struggling through its start-up or early phases that has not
yet generated enough cash inflow from sales to cover its cash outflow for
expenses (and perhaps never will).