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Definition of bar code

Bar Code Image 1

bar code

a group of lines and spaces arranged in a special
machine-readable pattern by which a scanner measures the
intensity of the light reflections of the white spaces between
the lines and converts the signal back into the original data


Bar code

Information encoded into a series of bar and spaces of varying widths,
which can be automatically read and converted to text by a scanning device.



Related Terms:

Bar

Slang for one million dollars.


Barbell strategy

A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
at two extremes.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by barRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.



Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.


Barter

A system of exchange in which one good is traded directly for another without the use of money.


Bar Code Image 2

Internal Revenue Code

Refers to all federal tax laws as a group.


ABM (automated banking machine)

A bank machine, sometimes referred to as an automated teller machine (ATM).


All or none

Requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.


All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


Asset-Backed Securities

Bond or note secured by assets of company.


Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


Asymmetric information

Information that is known to some people but not to other people.


At-the-money

An option is at-the-money if the strike price of the option is equal to the market price of the
underlying security. For example, if xyz stock is trading at 54, then the xyz 54 option is at-the-money.


Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
large number of trades.


Bar Code Image 1

Back fee

The fee paid on the extension date if the buyer wishes to continue the option.


Back flush

The subsequent subtraction from inventory records of those parts used
to assemble a product, based on the number of finished goods produced.



Back office

Brokerage house clerical operations that support, but do not include, the trading of stocks and
other securities. Includes all written confirmation and settlement of trades, record keeping and regulatory
compliance.
back-end loan fund
A mutual fund that charges investors a fee to sell (redeem) shares, often ranging from
4% to 6%. Some back-end load funds impose a full commission if the shares are redeemed within a
designated time, such as one year. The commission decreases the longer the investor holds the shares. The
formal name for the back-end load is the contingent deferred sales charge, or CDSC.


Back To Back Annuity

This term refers to the simultaneous issue of a life annuity with a non-guaranteed period and a guaranteed life insurance policy [usually whole life or term to 100]. The face value of the life insurance would be the same amount that was used to purchase the annuity. This combination of life annuity providing the highest payout of all types of annuities, along with a guaranteed life insurance policy allowed an uninsurable person to convert his/her RRSP into the best choice of annuity and guarantee that upon his/her death, the full value of the annuity would be paid tax free through the life insurance policy to his family members. However, in the early 1990's, the Federal tax authorities put a stop to the issuing of standard life rates to rated or uninsurable applicants. Insuring a life annuity in this manner is still an excellent way to provide guaranteed tax free funds to family members but the application for the annuity and the application for the life insurance are separate transactions and today, most likely conducted through two different insurance companies so that there is no suspicion of preferential treatment given to the life insurance application.


Back-to-back financing

An intercompany loan channeled through a bank.


Back-to-back loan

A loan in which two companies in separate countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific time period and repay the other's currency at an agreed upon maturity.


Back-up

1) When bond yields and prices fall, the market is said to back-up.
2) When an investor swaps out of one security into another of shorter current maturity he is said to back up.


Backdating

A procedure for making the effective date of a policy earlier than the application date. backdating is often used to make the age of the consumer at policy issue lower than it actually was in order to get a lower premium.


backflush costing

a streamlined cost accounting method that speeds up, simplifies, and reduces accounting effort in an environment that minimizes inventory balances, requires
few allocations, uses standard costs, and has minimal variances
from standard


Backwardation

A market condition in which futures prices are lower in the distant delivery months than in
the nearest delivery month. This situation may occur in when the costs of storing the product until eventual
delivery are effectively subtracted from the price today. The opposite of contango.


Barbell strategy

A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
at two extremes.


Bar Code Image 2

Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.



BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by barRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.


Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.


Barter

A system of exchange in which one good is traded directly for another without the use of money.


Bull spread

A spread strategy in which an investor buys an out-of-the-money put option, financing it by
selling an out-of-the money call option on the same underlying.


Buy-back

Another term for a repo.


Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Capital flight

The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.


charge-back system

a system using transfer prices; see transfer
price


Component

Raw materials or subassemblies used to make either finished goods
or higher levels of subassembly.


Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.


Constant dollars

See real dollars.


Credible signal

A signal that provides accurate Information; a signal that can be distinguish among senders.


Credit spread

Related:Quality spread


Current Dollars

A variable like GDP is measured in current dollars if each year's value is measured in prices prevailing during that year. In contrast, when measured in real or constant dollars, each year's value is measured in a base year's prices.


data

bits of knowledge or facts that have not been summarized
or categorized in a manner useful to a decision maker


data mining

a form of analysis in which statistical techniques
are used to uncover answers to important questions about
business operations


Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.


Dividend clawback

With respect to a project financing, an arrangement under which the sponsors of a project
agree to contribute as equity any prior dividends received from the project to the extent necessary to cover
any cash deficiencies.


Dow Jones industrial average

This is the best known U.S.index of stocks. It contains 30 stocks that trade on
the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest
U.S.companies are performing. There are thousands of investment indexes around the world for stocks,
bonds, currencies and commodities.


Dow Jones Industrial Average

Index of the investment performance of a portfolio of 30 “blue-chip” stocks.


economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


Effective spread

The gross underwriting spread adjusted for the impact of the announcement of the common
stock offering on the firm's share price.


Electronic data interchange (EDI)

The exchange of Information electronically, directly from one firm's
computer to another firm's computer, in a structured format.


electronic data interchange (EDI)

the computer-to-computer transfer of Information in virtual real time using standardized formats developed by the American National Standards Institute


Equity Buy-Back

Refers to the investors percentage ownership of a company that can be re-acquired by the company, usually at a pre-determined amount.


Euro lines

lines of credit granted by banks (foreign or foreign branches of U.S. banks) for Eurocurrencies.


eurodollars

dollars held on deposit in a bank outside the United States.


Eurodollars

Deposits denominated in U.S. dollars but held in banks located outside the United States, such as in Canada or France.


European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.


Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional Information.


Extra or special dividends

A dividend that is paid in addition to a firm's "regular" quarterly dividend.


Feedback

The retrospective process of measuring performance, comparing it with plan and taking corrective action.


Fiat Money

Fiat Money is paper currency made legal tender by law or fiat. It is not backed by gold or silver and is not necessarily redeemable in coin. This practice has had widespread use for about the last 70 years. If governments produce too much of it, there is a loss of confidence. Even so, governments print it routinely when they need it. The value of fiat money is dependent upon the performance of the economy of the country which issued it. Canada's currency falls into this category.


Flight to quality

The tendency of investors to move towards safer, government bonds during periods of high
economic uncertainty.


Future-Oriented Financial Information

Information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. Future-oriented financial Information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.


Gross spread

The fraction of the gross proceeds of an underwritten securities offering that is paid as
compensation to the underwriters of the offering.


Group Life Insurance

This is a very common form of life insurance which is found in employee benefit plans and bank mortgage insurance. In employee benefit plans the form of this insurance is usually one year renewable term insurance. The cost of this coverage is based on the average age of everyone in the group. Therefore a group of young people would have inexpensive rates and an older group would have more expensive rates.
Some people rely on this kind of insurance as their primary coverage forgetting that group life insurance is a condition of employment with their employer. The coverage is not portable and cannot be taken with you if you change jobs. If you have a change in health, you may not qualify for new coverage at your new place of employment.
Bank mortgage insurance is also usually group insurance and you can tell this by virtue of the fact that you only receive a certificate of insurance, and not a complete policy. The only form in which bank mortgage insurance is sold is reducing term insurance, matching the declining mortgage balance. The only beneficiary that can be chosen for this kind of insurance is the bank. In both cases, employee benefit plan group insurance and bank mortgage insurance, the coverage is not guaranteed. This means that coverage can be cancelled by the insurance company underwriting that particular plan, if they are experiencing excessive claims.


Group of five (G5/G-5)

The five leading countries (France, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and the U.S.) that
meet periodically to achieve some cooperative effort on international economic issues. When currency issues
are discussed, the monetary authorities of these nations hold the meeting.


Group of seven (G7/G-7)

The G-5 countries plus Canada and Italy.


Group rotation manager

A top-down manager who infers the phases of the business cycle and allocates
assets accordingly.


High-Powered Money

See money base.


Horizontal spread

The simultaneous purchase and sale of two options that differ only in their exercise date.


Hot money

Money that moves across country borders in response to interest rate differences and that moves
away when the interest rate differential disappears.


In-the-money

A put option that has a strike price higher than the underlying futures price, or a call option
with a strike price lower than the underlying futures price. For example, if the March COMEX silver futures
contract is trading at $6 an ounce, a March call with a strike price of $5.50 would be considered in-the-money
by $0.50 an ounce.
Related: put.


information

bits of knowledge or fact that have been carefully
chosen from a body of data and arranged in a meaningful way


Information asymmetry

A situation involving Information that is known to some, but not all, participants.


Information Coefficient (IC)

The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.


Information-content effect

The rise in the stock price following the dividend signal.


information content of dividends

Dividend increases send good news about cash flow and earnings. Dividend cuts send bad news.


Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.


Information-motivated trades

Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
Information not currently reflected in the stock's price.


Information services

Organizations that furnish investment and other types of Information, such as
Information that helps a firm monitor its cash position.


Informational efficiency

The speed and accuracy with which prices reflect new Information.


Informationless trades

Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing Information.


Insider information

Relevant Information about a company that has not yet been made public. It is illegal for
holders of this Information to make trades based on it, however received.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment
problems.


International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Organization originally established to manage the postwar fixed exchange rate system.


International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


Intramarket sector spread

The spread between two issues of the same maturity within a market sector. For
instance, the difference in interest rates offered for five-year industrial corporate bonds and five-year utility
corporate bonds.


Law of one price

An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price regardless of the
means by which one goes about creating that security. This implies that if the payoff of a security can be
synthetically created by a package of other securities, the price of the package and the price of the security
whose payoff it replicates must be equal.


law of one price

Theory that prices of goods in all countries should be equal when translated to a common currency.


Limitation on sale-and-leaseback

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to enter into
sale and lease-back transactions.


Lookback option

An option that allows the buyer to choose as the option strike price any price of the
underlying asset that has occurred during the life of the option. If a call, the buyer will choose the minimal
price, whereas if a put, the buyer will choose the maximum price. This option will always be in the money.


Loss carryback

The offsetting of a current year loss against the reported taxable
income of previous years.


Machinery

The cost of machinery owned by the company.


Make-ready

See set-up.


Management Accounting Guidelines (MAGs)

pronouncements of the Society of Management Accountants of
Canada that advocate appropriate practices for specific
management accounting situations


management information system (MIS)

a structure of interrelated elements that collects, organizes, and communicates
data to managers so they may plan, control, evaluate
performance, and make decisions; the emphasis of the
MIS is on internal demands for Information rather than external
demands; some or all of the MIS may be computerized
for ease of access to Information, reliability of input
and processing, and ability to simulate outcomes of
alternative situations


Maturity spread

The spread between any two maturity sectors of the bond market.


Medical Information Bureau

This organization was established in 1902. The Medical Information Bureau (M.I.B.) is a non-profit association of life insurance companies. Its purpose is to detect and deter fraud by providing warnings called, alerts, to member companies. For example, if an insurance applicant advised one insurance company of a heart attack and then applied to another insurance company omitting this history, codes, reported by the first insurance company, indicating a heart attack would alert the second insurance company to the undisclosed history. It is a rarity, however, that the alert is the only notice of a specific medical impairement as most applicants completely disclose their history.


Monetarism

School of economic thought stressing the importance of the money supply in the economy. Adherents believe that the economy is inherently stable, so that policy is best undertaken through adoption of a policy rule.


Monetarist Rule

Proposal that the money supply be increased at a steady rate equal approximately to the real rate of growth of the economy. Contrast with discretionary policy.


Monetary Aggregate

Any measure of the economy's money supply.


Monetary Base

See money base.


Monetary gold

Gold held by governmental authorities as a financial asset.


Monetary / non-monetary method

Under this translation method, monetary items (e.g. cash, accounts
payable and receivable, and long-term debt) are translated at the current rate while non-monetary items (e.g.
inventory, fixed assets, and long-term investments) are translated at historical rates.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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