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Definition of Bane

Bane Image 1


In the words of Warren Buffet, Bill bane Sr., is, "a great American and one of the last real traders
around. I like to call him 'Salvo.'" His wife, Carol, is a huge NASCAR fan, and in her own words "delights in
pulling the legs off central bankers." Cooper bane, son number two, is a thriving artiste who specializes in
making art that is much better than the stuff most folks are doing. Jackson, son number three, is a world
renowned master chef and plans on opening a restaurant. Bill bane Jr., son number one, plans on giving Mr.
Monroe Trout a run for his money. [Bill bane, Jr. helped Professor Harvey put the hypertextual glossary
together while an MBA student at Duke University.]

Related Terms:

economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


the period before a formal announcement of a takeover bid in which one or more bidders are either preparing to make an announcement or speculating that someone else will.

After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

All or none

Requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.

All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.

American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)

Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign
shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. one ADR may
represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's
are "sponsored," the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may
subsidize the administration of the ADRs. "Unsponsored" ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs carry
the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. American depositary shares(ADSs) are
a similar form of certification.

American option

An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date.
Related: European option

Bane Image 1

American shares

Securities certificates issued in the U.S. by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign
issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities.

American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.

American-style option

An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and
the expiration date. most exchange-traded options are American style.

Articles of incorporation

Legal document establishing a corporation and its structure and purpose.


An option is at-the-money if the strike price of the option is equal to the market price of the
underlying security. For example, if xyz stock is trading at 54, then the xyz 54 option is at-the-money.

BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.

Bellwether issues

Related:Benchmark issues.

Bill of exchange

General term for a document demanding payment.

Bill of lading

A contract between the exporter and a transportation company in which the latter agrees to
transport the goods under specified conditions which limit its liability. It is the exporter's receipt for the goods
as well as proof that goods have been or will be received.

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Book runner

The managing underwriter for a new issue. The book runner maintains the book of securities sold.

Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).

Buy on opening

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.


Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly


An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.

Call an option

To exercise a call option.

Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.

Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.

Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.

Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.

Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.

Bane Image 3

Call protection

A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be

Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.

Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.

Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.

Cash management bill

Very short maturity Bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.


Related: technical analysts.

Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMr)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMr Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMr-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.

Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.

Comparison universe

The collection of money managers of similar investment style used for assessing
relative performance of a portfolio manager.

Corporate charter

A legal document creating a corporation.

Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.

Counterpart items

In the balance of payments, counterpart items are analogous to unrequited transfers in the
current account. They arise because the double-entry system in balance of payments accounting and refer to
adjustments in reserves owing to monetization or demonetization of gold, allocation or cancellation of SDRs,
and revaluation of the various components of total reserves.


The parties to an interest rate swap.

Counterparty Party

on the other side of a trade or transaction.

Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.

Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.

Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.

Covered Put

A put option position in which the option writer also is short the corresponding stock or has
deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise of the option. This limits the
option writer's risk because money or stock is already set aside. In the event that the holder of the put option
decides to exercise the option, the writer's risk is more limited than it would be on an uncovered or naked put


The ability of the bankruptcy court to confirm a plan of reorganization over the objections of
some classes of creditors.

Crown jewel

A particularly profitable or otherwise particularly valuable corporate unit or asset of a firm.

Deductive reasoning

The use of general fact to provide accurate information about a specific situation.

Deferred call

A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. During this
period the bond is said to be call protected.

Demand master notes

Short-term securities that are repayable immediately upon the holder's demand.

Dow Jones industrial average

This is the best known U.S.index of stocks. It contains 30 stocks that trade on
the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest
U.S.companies are performing. There are thousands of investment indexes around the world for stocks,
bonds, currencies and commodities.

Down-and-in option

Barrier option that comes into existence if asset price hits a barrier.

Down-and-out option

Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.


A classic negative change in ratings for a stock, and or other rated security.

Due bill

An instrument evidencing the obligation of a seller to deliver securities sold to the buyer.
Occasionally used in the Bill market.

Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.

Either/or facility

An agreement permitting a bank customer to borrow either domestic dollars from the
bank's head office or Eurodollars from one of its foreign branches.

Either-way market

In the interbank Eurodollar deposit market, an either-way market is one in which the bid
and offered rates are identical.

Elasticity of an option

Percentage change in the value of an option given a 1% change in the value of the
option's underlying stock.

Eligible bankers' acceptances

In the BA market, an acceptance may be referred to as eligible because it is
acceptable by the Fed as collateral at the discount window and/or because the accepting bank can sell it
without incurring a reserve requirement.

Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of

European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.


With CMOs, the start of the cash flow cycle for the cash flow window.

Fisher effect

A theory that nominal interest rates in two or more countries should be equal to the required real
rate of return to investors plus compensation for the expected amount of inflation in each country.

Fisher's separation theorem

The firm's choice of investments is separate from its owner's attitudes towards
investments. Also refered to as portfolio separation theorem.

General partner

A partner who has unlimited liability for the obligations of the partnership.

General partnership

A partnership in which all partners are general partners.


When the Fed offers to buy securities, to sell securities, to do repo, or to do reverses, it solicits
competitive bids or offers from all primary dealers.

Graham-Harvey Measure 1

Performance measure invented by John Graham and Campbell Harvey. The
idea is to lever a fund's portfolio to exactly match the volatility of the S and P 500. The difference between the
fund's levered return and the S&P 500 return is the performance measure.

Graham-Harvey Measure 2

Performance measure invented by John Graham and Campbell Harvey. The
idea is to lever the S&P 500 portfolio to exactly match the volatility of the fund. The difference between the
fund's return and the levered S&P 500 return is the performance measure.

Herstatt risk

The risk of loss in foreign exchange trading that one party will deliver foreign exchange but the counterparty financial institution will fail to deliver its end of the contract. It is also referred to as settlement risk.

Historical exchange rate

An accounting term that refers to the exchange rate in effect when an asset or
liability was acquired.

Hot money

Money that moves across country borders in response to interest rate differences and that moves
away when the interest rate differential disappears.

Implied call

The right of the homeowner to prepay, or call, the mortgage at any time.

Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.

Inductive reasoning

The attempt to use information about a specific situation to draw a conclusion.

Input-output tables

Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other
industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output.

Insured plans

Defined benefit pension plans that are guaranteed by life insurance products. Related: noninsured plans

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - IBRD or World Bank

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high
economic priority.

International Fisher effect

States that the interest rate differential between two countries should be an
unbiased predictor of the future change in the spot rate.

International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment

International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


A put option that has a strike price higher than the underlying futures price, or a call option
with a strike price lower than the underlying futures price. For example, if the March COMEX silver futures
contract is trading at $6 an ounce, a March call with a strike price of $5.50 would be considered in-the-money
by $0.50 an ounce.
Related: put.

Invoice billing

Billing system in which the invoices are sent off at the time of customer orders are all separate
Bills to be paid.

Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).

Last split

After a stock split, the number of shares distributed for each share held and the date of the

Last trading day

The final day under an exchange's rules during which trading may take place in a particular
futures or options contract. Contracts outstanding at the end of the last trading day must be settled by delivery
of underlying physical commodities or financial instruments, or by agreement for monetary settlement
depending upon futures contract specifications.

Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)

A method of valuing inventory that uses the cost of the most recent item in
inventory first.

Law of large numbers

The mean of a random sample approaches the mean (expected value) of the
population as the sample grows.

Law of one price

An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price regardless of the
means by which one goes about creating that security. This implies that if the payoff of a security can be
synthetically created by a package of other securities, the price of the package and the price of the security
whose payoff it replicates must be equal.

LIFO (Last-in-first-out)

The last-in-first-out inventory valuation methodology. A method of valuing
inventory that uses the cost of the most recent item in inventory first.

Limited partner

A partner who has limited legal liability for the obligations of the partnership.

Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.

Long run

A period of time in which all costs are variable; greater than one year.
Long straddle A straddle in which a long position is taken in both a put and call option.

Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.

Long run

A period of time in which all costs are variable; greater than one year.

Making delivery

Refers to the seller's actually turning over to the buyer the asset agreed upon in a forward contract.

Margin call

A demand for additional funds because of adverse price movement. Maintenance margin
requirement, security deposit maintenance
Margin of safety With respect to working capital management, the difference between 1) the amount of longterm
financing, and 2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.







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