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authorized share capital

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Definition of authorized share capital

Authorized Share Capital Image 1

authorized share capital

Maximum number of shares that the company is permitted to issue, as specified in the firm’s articles of incorporation.



Related Terms:

American shares

Securities certificates issued in the U.S. by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign
issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities.


Authorized shares

Number of shares authorized for issuance by a firm's corporate charter.


Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.


Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).


Capital

Money invested in a firm.



Capital account

Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.


Capital allocation

decision Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Authorized Share Capital Image 2

Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


Capital budget

A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.


Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.


Capital flight

The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.


Capital gain

When a stock is sold for a profit, it's the difference between the net sales price of securities and
their net cost, or original basis. If a stock is sold below cost, the difference is a capital loss.


Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.


Capital lease

A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.


Capital loss

The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sale price, if that security is sold at a loss.


Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).


Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.



Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.


Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.


Capital rationing

Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital
budget.


Capital structure

The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially
the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.


Capital surplus

Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.


Capitalization

The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.


Capitalization method

A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a
number of the largest-capitalized names in the index stock in proportion to their capitalization.


Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.


Capitalization table

A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization
ratios.


Capitalized

Recorded in asset accounts and then depreciated or amortized, as is appropriate for expenditures
for items with useful lives greater than one year.



Capitalized interest

Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.


Cash flow per common share

Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.


Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.


Cost of capital

The required return for a capital budgeting project.


Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.


Dedicated capital

Total par value (number of shares issued, multiplied by the par value of each share). Also
called dedicated value.


Dividends per share

Amount of cash paid to shareholders expressed as dollars per share.


Dividends per share

Dividends paid for the past 12 months divided by the number of common shares
outstanding, as reported by a company. The number of shares often is determined by a weighted average of
shares outstanding over the reporting term.


Earnings per share (EPS)

EPS, as it is called, is a company's profit divided by its number of outstanding
shares. If a company earned $2 million in one year had 2 million shares of stock outstanding, its EPS would
be $1 per share. The company often uses a weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting term.


Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.


Fully diluted earnings per shares

Earnings per share expressed as if all outstanding convertible securities
and warrants have been exercised.


Hard capital rationing

capital rationing that under no circumstances can be violated.


Human capital

The unique capabilities and expertise of individuals.


Issued share capital

Total amount of shares that are in issue. Related: outstanding shares.


Legal capital

Value at which a company's shares are recorded in its books.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Management/closely held shares

Percentage of shares held by persons closely related to a company, as
defined by the Securities and exchange commission. Part of these percentages often is included in
Institutional Holdings -- making the combined total of these percentages over 100. There is overlap as
institutions sometimes acquire enough stock to be considered by the SEC to be closely allied to the company.


Market capitalization

The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current
market price. It is a measure of corporate size.


Market capitalization rate

Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate
discount rate for a firm's cash flows.


Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.


Nondiversifiability of human capital

The difficulty of diversifying one's human capital (the unique
capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort.


Opportunity cost of capital

Expected return that is foregone by investing in a project rather than in
comparable financial securities.


Other capital

In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital
transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It
is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from
country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most non-negotiable instruments of a
year or more like bank loans and mortgages. Other short-term capital includes financial assets of less than a
year such as currency, deposits, and bills.


Outstanding share capital

Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held in the company's treasury.


Outstanding shares

shares that are currently owned by investors.


Pecking-order view (of capital structure)

The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
preferred source.


Perfect capital market

A market in which there are never any arbitrage opportunities.


Perfect market view (of capital structure)

Analysis of a firm's capital structure decision, which shows the
irrelevance of capital structure in a perfect capital market.


Performance shares

shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings
per share and similar criteria. A control device used by shareholders to tie management to the self-interest of
shareholders.


Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.


Pie model of capital structure

A model of the debt/equity ratio of the firms, graphically depicted in slices of
a pie that represent the value of the firm in the capital markets.


Planned capital expenditure program

capital expenditure program as outlined in the corporate financial plan.


Preauthorized checks (PACs)

hecks that are authorized by the payer in advance and are written either by
the payee or by the payee's bank and then deposited in the payee's bank account.


Preauthorized electronic debits (PADs)

Debits to its bank account in advance by the payer. The payer's
bank sends payment to the payee's bank through the _ACH)Automated Clearing House (ACH) system.


Preferred shares

Preferred shares give investors a fixed dividend from the company's earnings. And more
importantly: preferred shareholders get paid before common shareholders. See: preferred stock.


Pro forma capital structure analysis

A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.


Real capital

Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial
securities, and real estate.


Share repurchase

Program by which a corporation buys back its own shares in the open market. It is usually
done when shares are undervalued. Since it reduces the number of shares outstanding and thus increases
earnings per share, it tends to elevate the market value of the remaining shares held by stockholders.


Shareholders' equity

This is a company's total assets minus total liabilities. A company's net worth is the
same thing.


Shareholders' letter

A section of an annual report where one can find jargon-free discussions by
management of successful and failed strategies which provides guidance for the probing of the rest of the
report.


Shares

Certificates or book entries representing ownership in a corporation or similar entity


"Soft" Capital Rationing

capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
as made up of targets rather than absolute constraints.


Static theory of capital structure

Theory that the firm's capital structure is determined by a trade-off of the
value of tax shields against the costs of bankruptcy.


Venture capital

An investment in a start-up business that is perceived to have excellent growth prospects but
does not have access to capital markets. Type of financing sought by early-stage companies seeking to grow rapidly.


Weighted average cost of capital

Expected return on a portfolio of all the firm's securities. Used as a hurdle
rate for capital investment.


Working capital

Defined as the difference in current assets and current liabilities (excluding short-term
debt). Current assets may or may not include cash and cash equivalents, depending on the company.


Working capital management

The management of current assets and current liabilities to maximize shortterm liquidity.


Working capital ratio

Working capital expressed as a percentage of sales.


CAPITAL

The money, raised by selling stock or bonds or taking out loans, that you use to start, operate, and grow a business.


CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.


Earnings per share of common stock

How much profit a company made on each share of common stock this year.


Capital

The shareholders’ investment in the business; the difference between the assets and liabilities
of a business.


Capital employed

The total of debt and equity, i.e. the total funds in the business.


Capitalize

To make a payment that might otherwise be an expense (in the Profit and Loss account) an asset
(in the Balance Sheet).


Capital market

The market in which investors buy and sell shares of companies, normally associated with a Stock Exchange.


Cost of capital

The costs incurred by an organization to fund all its investments, comprising the risk-adjusted
cost of equity and debt weighted by the mix of equity and debt.


Return on capital employed (ROCE)

The operating profit before interest and tax as a percentage of the total shareholders’ funds plus
the long-term debt of the business.


Shareholders’ funds

The capital invested in a business by the shareholders, including retained profits.


Shareholder value

Increasing the value of the business to its shareholders, achieved through a combination of
dividend and capital growth in the value of the shares.


Weighted average cost of capital

See cost of capital.


Working capital

Current assets less current liabilities. Money that revolves in the business as part of the process of buying, making and selling goods and services, particularly in relation to debtors, creditors, inventory and bank.


Additional paid-in capital

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with capital in excess of par.


Authorized shares

The number of shares of stock that the company is legally authorized to sell.


Capital in excess par

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with additional paid-in capital.


Contributed capital

The amount put into the business by the owners by purchasing stock and by paying more than the par value for the stock (additional paid-in capital or capital in excess of par).


Issued shares

The number of shares that the company has sold to the public.


Outstanding shares

The number of shares that are in the hands of the public. The difference between issued shares and outstanding shares is the shares held as treasury stock.


Shareholders' equity

The total amount of contributed capital and retained earnings; synonymous with stockholders' equity.


basic earnings per share (EPS)

This important ratio equals the net
income for a period (usually one year) divided by the number capital
stock shares issued by a business corporation. This ratio is so important
for publicly owned business corporations that it is included in the daily
stock trading tables published by the Wall Street Journal, the New York
Times, and other major newspapers. Despite being a rather straightforward
concept, there are several technical problems in calculating
earnings per share. Actually, two EPS ratios are needed for many businesses—
basic EPS, which uses the actual number of capital shares outstanding,
and diluted EPS, which takes into account additional shares of
stock that may be issued for stock options granted by a business and
other stock shares that a business is obligated to issue in the future.
Also, many businesses report not one but two net income figures—one
before extraordinary gains and losses were recorded in the period and a
second after deducting these nonrecurring gains and losses. Many business
corporations issue more than one class of capital stock, which
makes the calculation of their earnings per share even more complicated.


book value and book value per share

Generally speaking, these terms
refer to the balance sheet value of an asset (or less often of a liability) or
the balance sheet value of owners’ equity per share. Either term emphasizes
that the amount recorded in the accounts or on the books of a business
is the value being used. The total of the amounts reported for
owners’ equity in its balance sheet is divided by the number of stock
shares of a corporation to determine the book value per share of its capital
stock.


capital

A very broad term rooted in economic theory and referring to
money and other assets that are invested in a business or other venture
for the general purpose of earning a profit, or a return on the investment.
Generally speaking, the sources of capital for a business are
divided between debt and equity. Debt, as you know, is borrowed money
on which interest is paid. Equity is the broad term for the ownership
capital invested in a business and is most often called owners’ equity.
Owners’ equity arises from two quite different sources: (1) money or
other assets invested in the business by its owners and (2) profit earned
by the business that is retained and not distributed to its owners (called
retained earnings).



 

 

 

 

 

 

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