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Definition of AS

AS Image 1

AS

Aggregate supply.



Related Terms:

ABC inventory classification

A method for dividing inventory into classifications,
either by transaction volume or cost. Typically, category A includes that 20% of
inventory involving 60% of all costs or transactions, while category B includes
the next 20% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or transactions, and category
C includes the remaining 60% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or
transactions.


Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release (AAER)

Administrative proceedings or litigation releases that entail an accounting or auditing-related violation of the securities laws.


accrual-basis accounting

Well, frankly, accrual is not a good descriptive
term. Perhaps the best way to begin is to mention that accrual-basis
accounting is much more than cash-basis accounting. Recording only the
cash receipts and cash disbursement of a business would be grossly
inadequate. A business has many assets other than cash, as well as
many liabilities, that must be recorded. Measuring profit for a period as
the difference between cash inflows from sales and cash outflows for
expenses would be wrong, and in fact is not allowed for most businesses
by the income tax law. For management, income tax, and financial
reporting purposes, a business needs a comprehensive record-keeping
system—one that recognizes, records, and reports all the assets and liabilities
of a business. This all-inclusive scope of financial record keeping
is referred to as accrual-basis accounting. Accrual-basis accounting
records sales revenue when sales are made (though cash is received
before or after the sales) and records expenses when costs are incurred
(though cash is paid before or after expenses are recorded). Established
financial reporting standards require that profit for a period
must be recorded using accrual-basis accounting methods. Also, these
authoritative standards require that in reporting its financial condition a
business must use accrual-basis accounting.


Acquisition of assets

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.


Activity-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers – see also activity-based costing.



activity-based budgeting (ABB)

planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
quality of production


Activity-based costing

A method of costing that uses cost pools to accumulate the cost of significant business activities and then assigns the costs from the cost pools to products or services based on cost drivers.


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activity based costing (ABC)

A relatively new method advocated for the
allocation of indirect costs. The key idea is to classify indirect costs,
many of which are fixed in amount for a period of time, into separate
activities and to develop a measure for each activity called a cost driver.
The products or other functions in the business that benefit from the
activity are allocated shares of the total indirect cost for the period based
on their usage as measured by the cost driver.


activity-based costing (ABC)

a process using multiple cost drivers to predict and allocate costs to products and services;
an accounting system collecting financial and operational
data on the basis of the underlying nature and extent
of business activities; an accounting information and
costing system that identifies the various activities performed
in an organization, collects costs on the basis of
the underlying nature and extent of those activities, and
assigns costs to products and services based on consumption
of those activities by the products and services


Activity-based costing (ABC)

A cost allocation system that compiles costs and assigns
them to activities based on relevant activity drivers. The cost of these activities can
then be charged to products or customers to arrive at a much more relevant allocation
of costs than was previously the case.


activity-based management (ABM)

a discipline that focuses on the activities incurred during the production/performance process as the way to improve the value received
by a customer and the resulting profit achieved by providing
this value


Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.


Agency basis

A means of compensating the broker of a program trade solely on the basis of commission
established through bids submitted by various brokerage firms. agency incentive arrangement. A means of
compensating the broker of a program trade using benchmark prices for issues to be traded in determining
commissions or fees.


Agency pass-throughs

Mortgage pass-through securities whose principal and interest payments are
guaranteed by government agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae"), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac") and Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae").


Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour

hours, machine hours or volume of production
used to apportion overheads to products and
services.


Asian currency units (ACUs)

Dollar deposits held in Singapore or other Asian centers.


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Asian option

Option based on the average price of the asset during the life of the option.


Ask

This is the quoted ask, or the lowest price an investor will accept to sell a stock. Practically speaking, this
is the quoted offer at which an investor can buy shares of stock; also called the offer price.



Ask price

A dealer's price to sell a security; also called the offer price.


Asset

Any possession that has value in an exchange.


Asset

A resource, recorded through a transaction, that is expected to yield a benefit to a
company.


Asset

Something that is owned; a financial claim or a piece of property that is a store of value.


Asset

Probable future economic benefit that is obtained or controlled by an entity as a result of
a past transaction or event.


asset

Anything owned by, or owed to, an individual or business which has commercial or exchange value (e.g., cash, property, etc.).


Asset

All things of value owned by an individual or organization.


Asset activity ratios

Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.


Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.


Asset-Backed Securities

Bond or note secured by assets of company.



Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


Asset-based financing

Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
cash flow from a particular asset or set of assets for a return on, and the return of, their financing.


Asset-Based Financing

Loans granted usually by a financial institution where the asset being financed constitutes the sole security given to the lender.


Asset classes

Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.


Asset Coverage

Extent to which a company's net assets cover a particular debt obligation, class of preferred stock, or equity position.


Asset-coverage test

A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
debt does not fall below a specified minimum.


Asset/equity ratio

The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.


Asset for asset swap

Creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another
defaulting borrower.


Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.


asset mix

The weighting of assets in an investment portfolio among different asset classes (e.g. shares, bonds, property, cash, overseas investments.


Asset pricing model

A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.


Asset pricing model

A model, such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), that determines the required
rate of return on a particular asset.


Asset-specific Risk

The amount of total risk that can be eliminated by diversification by
creating a portfolio. Also known as company-specific risk or
unsystematic risk.


Asset substitution

A firm's investing in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected.


Asset substitution problem

Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
assets and expropriate value from the debtholders.


Asset swap

An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to
provide a better match with its iabilities.


Asset turnover

The ratio of net sales to total assets.


asset turnover

a ratio measuring asset productivity and showing the number of sales dollars generated by each dollar of assets


asset turnover ratio

A broad-gauge ratio computed by dividing annual
sales revenue by total assets. It is a rough measure of the sales-generating
power of assets. The idea is that assets are used to make sales, and the
sales should lead to profit. The ultimate test is not sales revenue on
assets, but the profit earned on assets as measured by the return on
assets (ROA) ratio.


Assets

A firm's productive resources.


ASSETS

Anything of value that a company owns.


Assets

Things that the business owns.


Assets

Items owned by the company or expenses that have been paid for but have not been used up.


Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.


Assignment

The receipt of an exercise notice by an options writer that requires the writer to sell (in the case
of a call) or purchase (in the case of a put) the underlying security at the specified strike price.


Assignment

This is the legal transfer on one person's interest in an insurance policy to another person or entity, such as to a bank to qualify for a loan


Assuris

Assuris is a not for profit organization that protects Canadian policyholders in the event that their life insurance company should become insolvent. Their role is to protect policyholders by minimizing loss of benefits and ensuring a quick transfer of their policies to a solvent company where their benefits will continue to be honoured. Assuris is funded by the life insurance industry and endorsed by government. If you are a Canadian citizen or resident, and you purchased a product from a member life insurance company in Canada, you are protected by Assuris.
All life insurance companies authorized to sell in Canada are required, by the federal, provincial and territorial regulators, to become members of Assuris. Members cannot terminate their membership as long as they are licensed to write business in Canada or have any in force business in Canada.
If your life insurance company fails, your policies will be transferred to a solvent company. Assuris guarantees that you will retain at least 85% of the insurance benefits you were promised. Insurance benefits include Death, Health Expense, Monthly Income and Cash Value. Your deposit type products will also be transferred to a solvent company. For these products, Assuris guarantees that you will retain 100% of your Accumulated Value up to $100,000. Deposit type products include accumulation annuities, universal life overflow accounts, premium deposit accounts and dividend deposit accounts. The key to Assuris protection is that it is applied to all benefits of a similar type. If you have more than one policy with the failed company, you will need to add together all similar benefits before applying the Assuris protection. The Assuris website can be found at www.assuris.ca.


Asymmetric information

Information that is known to some people but not to other people.


Asymmetric taxes

A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.


Asymmetry

A lack of equivalence between two things, such as the unequal tax treatment of interest expense
and dividend payments.


attribute-based costing (ABC II)

an extension of activitybased costing using cost-benefit analysis (based on increased customer utility) to choose the product attribute
enhancements that the company wants to integrate into a product


Attribute bias

The tendency of stocks preferred by the dividend discount model to share certain equity
attributes such as low price-earnings ratios, high dividend yield, high book-value ratio or membership in a
particular industry sector.


Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
large number of trades.


Bank discount basis

A convention used for quoting bids and offers for treasury bills in terms of annualized
yield , based on a 360-day year.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.


Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.


Base Year

The reference year when constructing a price index. By tradition it is given the value 100.


Basic balance

In a balance of payments, the basic balance is the net balance of the combination of the current
account and the capital account.


Basic business strategies

Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.


basic earnings per share (EPS)

This important ratio equals the net
income for a period (usually one year) divided by the number capital
stock shares issued by a business corporation. This ratio is so important
for publicly owned business corporations that it is included in the daily
stock trading tables published by the Wall Street Journal, the New York
Times, and other major newspapers. Despite being a rather straightforward
concept, there are several technical problems in calculating
earnings per share. Actually, two EPS ratios are needed for many businesses—
basic EPS, which uses the actual number of capital shares outstanding,
and diluted EPS, which takes into account additional shares of
stock that may be issued for stock options granted by a business and
other stock shares that a business is obligated to issue in the future.
Also, many businesses report not one but two net income figures—one
before extraordinary gains and losses were recorded in the period and a
second after deducting these nonrecurring gains and losses. Many business
corporations issue more than one class of capital stock, which
makes the calculation of their earnings per share even more complicated.


Basic Earnings Power Ratio

Percentage of earnings relative to total assets; indication of how
effectively assets are used to generate earnings. It is calculated by
dividing earnings before interest and taxes by the book value of all
assets.


Basic IRR rule

Accept the project if IRR is greater than the discount rate; reject the project is lower than the
discount rate.


Basis

Regarding a futures contract, the difference between the cash price and the futures price observed in the
market. Also, it is the price an investor pays for a security plus any out-of-pocket expenses. It is used to
determine capital gains or losses for tax purposes when the stock is sold.


Basis point

In the bond market, the smallest measure used for quoting yields is a basis point. Each percentage
point of yield in bonds equals 100 basis points. Basis points also are used for interest rates. An interest rate of
5% is 50 basis points greater than an interest rate of 4.5%.


Basis Point

One one-hundredth of one percent


Basis point

One hundredth of one percentage point, or 0.0001.


Basis Point

One one-hundredth of a percentage point, used to express variations in yields. For example, the difference between 5.36 percent and 5.38 percent is 2 basis points.


Basis price

Price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.


Basis risk

The uncertainty about the basis at the time a hedge may be lifted. Hedging substitutes basis risk for
price risk.


Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.


Basket trades

Related: Program trades.


Biased expectations theories

Related: pure expectations theory.


Bid-asked

spread The difference between the bid and asked prices.


Bond-equivalent basis

The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.


Break-even lease payment

The lease payment at which a party to a prospective lease is indifferent between
entering and not entering into the lease arrangement.


Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association (CLHIA)

An association of most of the life and health insurance companies in Canada that conducts research and compiles information about the life and health insurance industry in Canada.


capital asset

an asset used to generate revenues or cost savings
by providing production, distribution, or service capabilities
for more than one year


Capital asset

A fixed asset, something that is expected to have long-term usage within
a company, and which exceeds a minimum dollar amount (known as the capitalization
limit, or cap limit).


Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

A model for estimating equilibrium rates of return and values of
assets in financial markets; uses beta as a measure of asset risk
relative to market risk


capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

Theory of the relationship between risk and return which states that the expected risk
premium on any security equals its beta times the market risk premium.


Capital lease

A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.


Capital lease

A lease in which the lessee obtains some ownership rights over the asset
involved in the transaction, resulting in the recording of the asset as company property
on its general ledger.


Capital Lease

One where substantially all of the benefits and risks of ownership are transferred to the lessee. It must be reflected on the company's balance sheet as an asset and corresponding liability.


Capitalized Cost An expenditure or accrual that is reported as an asset to be amortized against

future-period revenue.


CASB

see Cost Accounting Standards Board


Cash

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually
includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash
equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.


Cash

Amounts held in currency and coin (commonly referred to as petty cash) and amounts on deposit in financial institutions.
Cash disbursement journal
A journal used to record the transactions that result in a credit to cash.


Cash

Currency, coin, and funds on deposit that are available for immediate withdrawal without
restriction. Money orders, certified checks, cashier's checks, personal checks, and bank drafts
are also considered cash.


Cash accounting

A method of accounting in which profit is calculated as the difference between income
when it is received and expenses when they are paid.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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