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Definition of Writer

Writer Image 1

Writer

The seller of an option, usually an individual, bank, or company, that issues the option and
consequently has the obligation to sell the asset ( if a call) or to buy the asset (if a put) on which the option is
written if the option buyer exercises the option.



Related Terms:

Life Underwriter

Insurance Agent.


Option writer

Option seller.


Underwriter

A party that guarantees the proceeds to the firm from a security sale, thereby in effect taking
ownership of the securities. Or, stated differently, a firm, usually an investment bank, that buys an issue of
securities from a company and resells it to investors.


underwriter

Firm that buys an issue of securities from a company and resells it to the public.


Underwriter

See investment banker.



Underwriter

This could be the person (broker or agent) who helps you choose the proper type of life insurance or disability insurance and the insurance company for your particular needs. This could also be the person at the insurance company's head office who reviews your application for coverage to determine whether or not the insurance company will issue a policy to you.


Underwriter

Person that uses various types of evidence to evaluate the insurability of a client.


Writer Image 2

All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


Assignment

The receipt of an exercise notice by an options writer that requires the writer to sell (in the case
of a call) or purchase (in the case of a put) the underlying security at the specified strike price.


Best-efforts sale

A method of securities distribution/ underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell
as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or
fixed price sale, where the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (with the securities firm
holding any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).


Book runner

The managing underwriter for a new issue. The book runner maintains the book of securities sold.


Bought deal

Security issue where one or two underwriters buy the entire issue.


Bracket

A term signifying the extent an underwriter's commitment in a new issue, e.g., major bracket or
minor bracket.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


Circle

Underwriters, actual or potential, often seek out and "circle" investor interest in a new issue before
final pricing. The customer circled basically made a commitment to purchase the issue if it comes at an
agreed-upon price. In the latter case, if the price is other than that stipulated, the customer supposedly has first
offer at the actual price.


Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.


Writer Image 3

Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.


Covered Put

A put option position in which the option writer also is short the corresponding stock or has
deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise of the option. This limits the
option writer's risk because money or stock is already set aside. In the event that the holder of the put option
decides to exercise the option, the writer's risk is more limited than it would be on an uncovered or naked put
option.



Greenshoe option

Option that allows the underwriter for a new issue to buy and resell additional shares.


Gross spread

The fraction of the gross proceeds of an underwritten securities offering that is paid as
compensation to the underwriters of the offering.


Inspection Report

This is a telephone interview of the person applying for life insurance conducted by someone from the underwriting department of the insurance company. Some insurance companies only sporadically contact applicants and some contact every applicant. On average the interview lasts between 15 to 30 minutes. The questions asked relate to personal habits (like smoking and alcohol consumption) and finances, including income and net worth, confirmation of employment, duties and the nature of the applicant's business. In addition, there are questions about driving, sports, aviation and currently held insurance. All information obtained is strictly confidential and is submitted solely to the underwriter for review.


Investment bank

Financial intermediaries who perform a variety of services, including aiding in the sale of
securities, facilitating mergers and other corporate reorganizations, acting as brokers to both individual and
institutional clients, and trading for their own accounts. Underwriters.


Investment Banker

Middleman between a corporation issuing new securities and the public. The middleman buys the securities issue outright and then resells it to customers. Also called an underwriter.


Margin requirement (Options)

The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.


Negotiated offering

An offering of securities for which the terms, including underwriters' compensation,
have been negotiated between the issuer and the underwriters.


Negotiated sale

Situation in which the terms of an offering are determined by negotiation between the issuer
and the underwriter rather than through competitive bidding by underwriting groups.


Option seller

Also called the option writer , the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in
the future.


Writer Image 4

Oversubscribed issue

Investors are not able to buy all of the shares or bonds they want, so underwriters must
allocate the shares or bonds among investors. This occurs when a new issue is underpriced or in great demand
because of growth prospects.



Public offering

The sale of registered securities by the issuer (or the underwriters acting in the interests of the
issuer) in the public market. Also called public issue.


Put swaption

A financial tool in which the buyer has the right, or option, to enter into a swap as a floatingrate
payer. The writer of the swaption therefore becomes the floating-rate receiver/fixed-rate payer.


Reoffering yield

In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds
to investors.


Spread

1) The gap between bid and ask prices of a stock or other security.
2) The simultaneous purchase and sale of separate futures or options contracts for the same commodity for delivery in different months.
Also known as a straddle.
3) Difference between the price at which an underwriter buys an issue from a firm
and the price at which the underwriter sells it to the public.
4) The price an issuer pays above a benchmark fixed-income yield to borrow money.


spread

Difference between public offer price and price paid by underwriter.


Standby agreement

In a rights issue, agreement that the underwriter will purchase any stock not purchased by investors.


Standby fee

Amount paid to an underwriter who agrees to purchase any stock that is not subscribed to the
public investor in a rights offering.


Street

Brokers, dealers, underwriters, and other knowledgeable members of the financial community; from
Wall Street financial community.


Swaption

Options on interest rate swaps. The buyer of a swaption has the right to enter into an interest rate
swap agreement by some specified date in the future. The swaption agreement will specify whether the buyer
of the swaption will be a fixed-rate receiver or a fixed-rate payer. The writer of the swaption becomes the
counterparty to the swap if the buyer exercises.


Take-up fee

A fee paid to an underwriter in connection with an underwritten rights offering or an
underwritten forced conversion as compensation for each share of common stock he underwriter obtains and
must resell upon the exercise of rights or conversion of bonds.


Tombstone

Advertisement listing the underwriters to a security issue.


Uncovered call

A short call option position in which the writer does not own shares of underlying stock
represented by his option contracts. Also called a "naked" call, it is much riskier for the writer than a covered
call, where the writer owns the underlying stock. If the buyer of a call exercises the option to call, the writer
would be forced to buy the stock at market price.


Uncovered put

A short put option position in which the writer does not have a corresponding short stock
position or has not deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise value of the
put. Also called "naked" puts, the writer has pledged to buy the stock at a certain price if the buyer of the
options chooses to exercise it. The nature of uncovered options means the writer's risk is unlimited.


Underwriting

Acting as the underwriter in a purchase and sale.


Underwriting syndicate

A group of investment banks that work together to sell new security offerings to
investors. The underwriting syndicate is led by the lead underwriter. See also: lead underwriter.
Underwritten offering
A purchase and sale.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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