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Definition of Wave picking

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Wave picking

The practice of grouping the priority of pick lists so that groups of
picked orders can be delivered at the same time, such as a set of orders being
delivered to a single customer on a single truck departing at a specific time.



Related Terms:

Cherry Picking

Selecting specific assets for sale so as to record desired gains or losses.


Batch picking

picking for several summarized orders at the same time, thereby
reducing the total number of required picks. The combined picks must still be
separated into their constituent orders, typically at some central location.


Discrete order picking

A picking method requiring the sequential completion of
each order before one begins picking the next order.


Order picking

The process of moving items from stock for shipment to customers.


Picking list

A document listing items to be removed from stock, either for delivery to the shop floor for production purposes or for delivery to a customer.



Picking transaction

Withdrawing parts or subassemblies from stock in order to
manufacture subassemblies or finished products.


Zone picking

The practice of picking by area of the warehouse, rather than by
order, requiring an additional consolidation step from which picking by order
is completed.


Wave Picking Image 1

Batch

A group of similar products produced together.


batch-level cost

a cost that is caused by a group of things
being made, handled, or processed at a single time


Batch cost

A cost that is incurred when a group of products or services are produced,
and which cannot be identified to specific products or services within each group.


Absolute priority

Rule in bankruptcy proceedings whereby senior creditors are required to be paid in full
before junior creditors receive any payment.


Accounting insolvency

total liabilities exceed total assets. A firm with a negative net worth is insolvent on
the books.


Acquisition of assets

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.


Asset

Any possession that has value in an exchange.


Asset/equity ratio

The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.


Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.


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Asset activity ratios

Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.


Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.



Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


Asset-based financing

Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
cash flow from a particular asset or set of assets for a return on, and the return of, their financing.


Asset classes

Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.


Asset-coverage test

A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
debt does not fall below a specified minimum.


Asset for asset swap

Creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another
defaulting borrower.


Asset pricing model

A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.


Asset substitution

A firm's investing in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected.


Asset substitution problem

Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
assets and expropriate value from the debtholders.


Asset swap

An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to
provide a better match with its iabilities.


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Asset turnover

The ratio of net sales to total assets.



Asset pricing model

A model, such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), that determines the required
rate of return on a particular asset.


Assets

A firm's productive resources.


Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.


Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks, the Bank of Japan, and the
U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it
now monitors and collects data on international banking activity and promulgates rules concerning
international bank regulation.


Best-efforts sale

A method of securities distribution/ underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell
as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or
fixed price sale, where the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (with the securities firm
holding any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).


Break-even time

Related: Premium payback period.


Capital allocation

decision Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.


Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.


Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.


Closing sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock,
or a given series of options.


Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk


Comparison universe

The collection of money managers of similar investment style used for assessing
relative performance of a portfolio manager.


Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.


Consol

A type of bond that has an infinite life but is not issued in the U.S. capital markets.


Consolidation

The combining of two or more firms to form an entirely new entity.


Consortium banks

A merchant banking subsidiary set up by several banks that may or may not be of the
same nationality. Consortium banks are common in the Euromarket and are active in loan syndication.


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.


Crossover rate

The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value.


Current assets

Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that
could be converted to cash in less than 1 year.


Date of record

Date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the recipients of
either dividends or stock rights.


Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.


Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.


Deductive reasoning

The use of general fact to provide accurate information about a specific situation.


Doctrine of sovereign immunity

Doctrine that says a nation may not be tried in the courts of another country
without its consent.


Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.


Dynamic asset allocation

An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in
response to -changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example.


Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
employees.


Exchange of assets

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.


Feasible set of portfolios

The collection of all feasible portfolios.


Financial assets

Claims on real assets.


Firm-specific risk

See:diversifiable risk or unsystematic risk.


Fixed asset

Long-lived property owned by a firm that is used by a firm in the production of its income.
Tangible fixed assets include real estate, plant, and equipment. Intangible fixed assets include patents,
trademarks, and customer recognition.


Fixed asset turnover ratio

The ratio of sales to fixed assets.


Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.


Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.


Forward sale

A method for hedging price risk which involves an agreement between a lender and an investor
to sell particular kinds of loans at a specified price and future time.


Good delivery and settlement procedures

Refers to PSA Uniform practices such as cutoff times on delivery
of securities and notification, allocation, and proper endorsement.


Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.


Government sponsored enterprises

Privately owned, publicly chartered entities, such as the Student Loan
Marketing Association, created by Congress to reduce the cost of capital for certain borrowing sectors of the
economy including farmers, homeowners, and students.


Holder-of-record date

The date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the
recipients of either dividends or stock rights. Also called date of record.


Immediate settlement

Delivery and settlement of securities within five business days.


Inductive reasoning

The attempt to use information about a specific situation to draw a conclusion.


Insolvency risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to satisfy its debts. Also known as bankruptcy risk.


Insolvent

A firm that is unable to pay debts (liabilities are greater than assets).


Installment sale

The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments).


Intangible asset

A legal claim to some future benefit, typically a claim to future cash. Goodwill, intellectual
property, patents, copyrights, and trademarks are examples of intangible assets.


Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.


Law of large numbers

The mean of a random sample approaches the mean (expected value) of the
population as the sample grows.


Lessor

An entity that leases an asset to another entity.
Letter of comment A communication to the firm from the SEC that suggests changes to its registration
statement.


Leveraged required return

The required return on an investment when the investment is financed partially by debt.


Limitation on merger, consolidation, or sale

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to
merge or consolidate with another firm.


Limitation on sale-and-leaseback

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to enter into
sale and lease-back transactions.


Liquid asset

Asset that is easily and cheaply turned into cash - notably cash itself and short-term securities.


Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.


Lessor

An entity that leases an asset to another entity.


Limitation on asset dispositions

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major assets.


Market timer

A money manager who assumes he or she can forecast when the stock market will go up and down.


Markowitz efficient set of portfolios

The collection of all efficient portfolios, graphically referred to as the
Markowitz efficient frontier.


Mutual offset

A system, such as the arrangement between the CME and SIMEX, which allows trading
positions established on one exchange to be offset or transferred on another exchange.


National Futures Association (NFA)

The futures industry self regulatory organization established in 1982.


Negotiated sale

Situation in which the terms of an offering are determined by negotiation between the issuer
and the underwriter rather than through competitive bidding by underwriting groups.


Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.


Net assets

The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized longterm
liabilities on the other hand.


Net operating losses

losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.


Non-reproducible assets

A tangible asset with unique physical properties, like a parcel of land, a mine, or a
work of art.


Offset

Elimination of a long or short position by making an opposite transaction. Related: liquidation.


Opening sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to create or increase a short position in a given
series of options.


Opportunity set

The possible expected return and standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of assets.


Other current assets

Value of non-cash assets, including prepaid expenses and accounts receivable, due
within 1 year.


Other sources

Amount of funds generated during the period from operations by sources other than
depreciation or deferred taxes. Part of Free cash flow calculation.


Overbought/oversold indicator

An indicator that attempts to define when prices have moved too far and too
fast in either direction and thus are vulnerable to reaction.


Pension sponsors

Organizations that have established a pension plan.


Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.


Personal trust

An interest in an asset held by a trustee for the benefit of another person.


Pickup

The gain in yield that occurs when a block of bonds is swapped for another block of higher-coupon bonds.


Plan sponsors

The entities that establish pension plans, including private business entities acting for their
employees; state and local entities operating on behalf of their employees; unions acting on behalf of their
members; and individuals representing themselves.


Poison pill

Anit-takeover device that gives a prospective acquiree's shareholders the right to buy shares of the
firm or shares of anyone who acquires the firm at a deep discount to their fair market value. Named after the
cyanide pill that secret agents are instructed to swallow if capture is imminent.


Poison put

A covenant allowing the bondholder to demand repayment in the event of a hostile merger.


Policy asset allocation

A long-term asset allocation method, in which the investor seeks to assess an
appropriate long-term "normal" asset mix that represents an ideal blend of controlled risk and enhanced
return.


Portfolio opportunity set

The expected return/standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of assets.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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