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Definition of Trough
The transition point between economic recession and recovery.
The lower turning point of a business cycle, where a contraction turns into an expansion.
Fluctuations of GDP around its long-run trend, consisting of recession, trough, expansion, and peak.
A variable that reaches a turning point (a peak or a trough) before the economy reaches a turning point.
The trough or peak of a business cycle.
A business cycle caused by policies undertaken to help a government be re-elected.
Belief that business cycles arise from real shocks to the economy, such as technology advances and natural resource discoveries, and have little to do with monetary policy.
The expansionary part of a business cycle in which GDP is growing rapidly.
A 12 month period over which a company reports on the activities that
A top-down manager who infers the phases of the business cycle and allocates
An unwritten understanding between two groups, such as an understanding between an employer and employees that employees will receive a stable wage despite business cycle activity.
The upper turning point of a business cycle, where expansion turns into a contraction.
The trough or peak of a business cycle.
The graphical depiction of the relationship between the yield on bonds of the same credit quality
Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.
The annual period over which budgets are prepared.
The use of capital to create more money through the addition of fixed assets or through income producing vehicles.
A business that has terminated with a loss to creditors.
business intelligence (BI) system
a formal process for gathering and analyzing information and producing intelligence to meet decision making needs; requires information about
business process reengineering (BPR)
the process of combining information technology to create new and more effective
The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic
an activity that is necessary for the operation of the business but for which a customer would not want to pay
Cash conversion cycle
The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash
cash conversion cycle
Period between firm’s payment for materials
In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital
The length of time between a purchase of materials and collection of accounts receivable generated by the sale of the products made from the materials.
Commercial Business Loan (Credit Insurance)
An agreement between a creditor and a borrower, where the creditor has loaned an amount to the borrower for business purposes.
The frequent, scheduled counting of a subset of all inventories,
the time between the placement of an order to
An expiration cycle relates to the dates on which options on a particular security expire. A
High-Risk Small Business
Firm viewed as being particularly subject to risk from an investors perspective.
Internet business model
a model that involves
life cycle costing
the accumulation of costs for activities that
An approach to costing that estimates and accumulates the costs of a product/service over
manufacturing cycle efficiency (MCE)
a ratio resulting from dividing the actual production time by total lead time;
The period between the 2 latest highs or lows of the S&P 500, showing net performance of a
The average time intervening between the acquisition of materials or services and the final
operating risk (business risk)
Risk in firm’s operating income.
The period of service for which a company compensates its employees.
The time it takes to bring new and/or improved products to market.
product life cycle
a model depicting the stages through
The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset.
a mission of increasing market share, even at
a mission that attempts to maximize shortterm
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