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Definition of total variance
the difference between total actual cost incurred
the difference between total actual overhead and total applied overhead; it is the amount of underapplied or overapplied overhead
the difference between total actual overhead
the budget variance of the two variance approach to analyzing overhead variances
A statistical measure of the degree to which random variables move together.
A measure of the degree to which returns on two assets move in
The variance between the budgeted and actual mixes of
the difference between the total actual fixed overhead and budgeted fixed overhead;
see volume variance
the number of hours actually worked minus the standard hours allowed for the production
The difference between the amount of time that was budgeted
(actual mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X actual hours X standard rate);
the actual rate (or actual weighted average rate) paid to labor for the period minus the standard rate multiplied by all hours actually worked during the period;
The difference between the actual and standard direct labor rates
(standard mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X standard hours X standard rate);
(actual mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X actual quantity X standardprice);
material price variance
total actual cost of material purchased
material quantity variance
(actual quantity X standard price) - (standard quantity allowed standard price);
material yield variance
(standard mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X standard quantity X standard price);
Materials price variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted cost to
Materials quantity variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted quantities
Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes.
The selection of portfolios based on the means and variances of their returns. The
Mean-variance efficient portfolio
Related: Markowitz efficient portfolio
Graph of the lowest possible portfolio variance that is attainable for a given
The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
the fixed overhead volume variance;
overhead efficiency variance
the difference between total budgeted overhead at actual hours and total budgeted
overhead spending variance
the difference between total actual overhead and total budgeted overhead at actual
Weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio.
Production yield variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted proportions
RATE OF RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS
The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar of assets. The formula is:
Return on total assets
The ratio of earnings available to common stockholders to total assets.
Return on Total Assets Ratio
A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
Selling price variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted selling price for
The covariance between a variable and the lagged value of the variable; the same as
Total asset turnover
The ratio of net sales to total assets.
Total Asset Turnover Ratio
A measure of the utilization of all of a company's assets to
total contribution margin
see contribution margin
total cost to account for
the sum of the costs in beginning
Total debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to
Total Debt to Total Assets Ratio
See debt ratio
Total dollar return
The dollar return on a nondollar investment, which includes the sum of any
total expected value (for a project)
the sum of the individual cash flows in a probability distribution multiplied by their related probabilities
total quality management (TQM)
a structural system for creating organization-wide participation in planning and implementing a continuous improvement process that exceeds
In performance measurement, the actual rate of return realized over some evaluation period. In
total sales and other revenue for the period shown. Known as "turnover" in the UK.
total units to account for
the sum of the beginning inventory
An agreement between countries whereby an employee only has to pay Social Security taxes to the country in which he or she is working
variable overhead efficiency variance
the difference between budgeted variable overhead based on actual input activity and variable overhead applied to production
variable overhead spending variance
the difference between total actual variable overhead and the budgeted amount of variable overhead based on actual input activity
A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical
The weighted average of the squared deviations from the
a difference between an actual and a standard or
The dispersion of a variable. The square of the standard deviation.
Average value of squared deviations from mean. A measure of volatility.
A method of budgetary control that compares actual performance against plan, investigates the causes of the variance and takes corrective action to ensure that targets are achieved.
the process of categorizing the nature (favorable or unfavorable) of the differences between standard and actual costs and determining the reasons for those differences
Variance minimization approach to tracking
An approach to bond indexing that uses historical data to
Specifies the permitted minimum or maximum quantity of securities that can be delivered to
a fixed overhead variance that represents
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