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Definition of Tail

Tail Image 1

Tail

1) The difference between the average price in Treasury auctions and the stopout price.
2) A future
money market instrument (one available some period hence) created by buying an existing instrument and
financing the initial portion of its life with a term repo.
3) The extreme end under a probability curve.
4) The odd amount in a MBS pool.



Related Terms:

Detailed Program

Design In software development, a detailed step-by-step plan for completing the software.


Figuring the tail

Calculating the yield at which a future money market (one available some period hence) is
purchased when that future security is created by buying an existing instrument and financing the initial
portion of its life with a term repo.


Retail

Individual and institutional customers as opposed to dealers and brokers.


Retail credit

Credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services.
See: consumer credit.


Retail investors, individual investors

Small investors who commit capital for their personal account.



Spectail

A dealer that does business with retail but that concentrates more on acquiring and financing its own
speculative positions.


Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release (AAER)

Administrative proceedings or litigation releases that entail an accounting or auditing-related violation of the securities laws.


Tail Image 2

activity analysis

the process of detailing the various repetitive actions that are performed in making a product or
providing a service, classifying them as value-added and
non-value-added, and devising ways of minimizing or eliminating
non-value-added activities


Annual report

Yearly record of a publicly held company's financial condition. It includes a description of the
firm's operations, its balance sheet and income statement. SEC rules require that it be distributed to all
shareholders. A more detailed version is called a 10-K.


Broker

An individual who is paid a commission for executing customer orders. Either a floor broker who
executes orders on the floor of the exchange, or an upstairs broker who handles retail customers and their
orders.


Budget

A detailed schedule of financial activity, such as an advertising budget, a sales budget, or a capital budget.


budget manual

a detailed set of documents that provides information
and guidelines about the budgetary process


Consumer credit

Credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called
retail credit.


Control account

An account maintained in the general ledger that holds the balance without the detail. The detail is maintained in a subsidiary ledger.


cost of production report

a process costing document that
details all operating and cost information, shows the computation
of cost per equivalent unit, and indicates cost assignment
to goods produced during the period


Currency basket

The value of a portfolio of specific amounts of individual currencies, used as the basis for
setting the market value of another currency. It is also referred to as a currency cocktail.


Default premium

A differential in promised yield that compensates the investor for the risk inherent in
purchasing a corporate bond that entails some risk of default.


Direct estimate method

A method of cash budgeting based on detailed estimates of cash receipts and cash
disbursements category by category.



Earning Power

A company's ability to generate a sustainable, and likely growing, stream of
earnings that provide cash flow.
Earnings Management The active manipulation of earnings toward a predetermined target.
That target may be one set by management, a forecast made by analysts, or an amount that is consistent with a smoother, more sustainable earnings stream. Often, although not always, earnings management entails taking steps to reduce and “store” profits during good years for use during slower years. This more limited form of earnings management is known as income smoothing.


Earnings Management

The active manipulation of earnings toward a predetermined target.
That target may be one set by management, a forecast made by analysts, or an amount that is consistent
with a smoother, more sustainable earnings stream. Often, although not always, earnings
management entails taking steps to reduce and “store” profits during good years for use during
slower years. This more limited form of earnings management is known as income smoothing.


financial budget

a plan that aggregates monetary details
from the operating budgets; includes the cash and capital
budgets of a company as well as the pro forma financial
statements


functional classification

a separation of costs into groups based on the similar reason for their incurrence; it includes
cost of goods sold and detailed selling and administrative
expenses


Indenture

Agreement between lender and borrower which details specific terms of the bond issuance.
Specifies legal obligations of bond issuer and rights of bondholders.


Ito process

Statistical assumptions about the behavior of security prices. For
details, see the book by Hull listed in the “Bibliography”.


Letter of Intent

A document signifying genuine interest in reaching a final agreement, conditional upon the results of more detailed due diligence and negotiations.


Litigation Release

Official SEC record of a settlement or a hearing scheduled before a civil
court judge of an alleged violation of one or more sections or rules of the securities laws. Typically,
a litigation release entails a more serious violation of the securities laws than an administrative
proceeding.


management control

This is difficult to define in a few words—indeed, an
entire chapter is devoted to the topic (Chapter 17). The essence of management
control is “keeping a close watch on everything.” Anything can
go wrong and get out of control. Management control can be thought of
as the follow-through on decisions to ensure that the actual outcomes
happen according to purposes and goals of the management decisions
that set things in motion. Managers depend on feedback control reports
that contain very detailed information. The level of detail and range of
information in these control reports is very different from the summarylevel
information reported in external income statements.


MERCHANDISE INVENTORY

The value of the products that a retailing or wholesaling company intends to resell for a profit.
In a manufacturing business, inventories would include finished goods, goods in process, raw materials, and parts and components that will go into the end product.



Notes to the financial statements

A detailed set of notes immediately following the financial statements in
an annual report that explain and expand on the information in the financial statements.


Offering Memorandum

A "prosperous-like" document providing detailed descriptions of a company's past, present, and prospective business operations. It is normally prepared for the use of potential purchasers of securities offered under the seed capital or private placement prospectus exemptions.


Open-outcry

The method of trading used at futures exchanges, typically involving calling out the specific
details of a buy or sell order, so that the information is available to all traders.


operational plan

a formulation of the details of implementing
and maintaining an organization’s strategic plan;
it is typically formalized in the master budget


product cost

This is a key factor in the profit model of a business. Product
cost is the same as purchase cost for a retailer or wholesaler (distributor).
A manufacturer has to accumulate three different types of production
costs to determine product cost: direct materials, direct labor, and
manufacturing overhead. The cost of products (goods) sold is deducted
from sales revenue to determine gross margin (also called gross profit),
which is the first profit line reported in an external income statement
and in an internal profit report to managers.


redeemable

The customer has the option to redeem (cash-in) part or all of an investment before it matures. Depending on the investment, early redemption may entail an interest rate penalty.


Replacement

This subject of replacement of existing policies is covered because sometimes existing life insurance policies are unnecessarily replaced with new coverage resulting in a loss of valuable benefits. If someone suggests replacing your existing coverage, insist on having a comparison disclosure statement completed.
The most important policies to examine in detail are those which were issued in Canada prior to December 2, 1982. If you have a policy of this vintage with a significant cash surrender value, you may want to consider keeping it. It has special tax advantages over policies issued after December 2, 1982.
Basically, the difference is this. The cash surrender value of a pre December, 1982 policy can be converted to an annuity in accordance with the settlement options in the policy and as a result, the tax on any policy gain can be spread over the duration of the annuity. Since only the interest element of the annuity payment will be taxed, there will be less of a tax impact on the annuitant. Policies issued after December 2, 1982 which have their cash surrender value annuitized trigger a disposition and the annuitant must pay tax on the total policy gain immediately. If you still decide to replace existing coverage, don't cancel what you have until the new coverage has been issued.


Sales Tax

A tax levied as a percentage of retail sales.


Statement of retained earnings

An adjunct to the balance sheet, providing more detailed information about the beginning balance, changes, and ending balance in
the retained earnings account during the reporting period.


Subsidiary ledger

An accounting record giving the detailed transactions in an account; the subtotals of the debits and credits are posted to the control account maintained in the general ledger. It helps to keep the general ledger free of clutter.


Will

This is a legal document detailing how you want your assets to be distributed upon your death. You may also stipulate how you wish to be buried or who you would like to take care of any surviving dependent family members. In my opinion, it is very important to be quite specific about your wishes for the distribution of special assets such as the antique grandfather clock, the classic silver tea set or the antique piano. If you think that your beneficiaries may dispute how your things are to be distributed, consider stipulating that an auction be held in which all beneficiaries may bid on the item which they value and all moneys collected are then shared in the same manner in which you distributed your other liquid assets. Your might want to remember that a will is automatically revoked upon marriage unless the will specifically states that the will is made in contemplation of marriage.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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