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Sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation

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Definition of Sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation

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Sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation

Method of accelerated depreciation.

Related Terms:

Accelerated depreciation

Any depreciation method that produces larger deductions for depreciation in the
early years of a project's life. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), which is a depreciation schedule
allowed for tax purposes, is one such example.

accelerated depreciation

(1) The estimated useful life of the fixed asset being depreciated is
shorter than a realistic forecast of its probable actual service life;
(2) more of the total cost of the fixed asset is allocated to the first
half of its useful life than to the second half (i.e., there is a
front-end loading of depreciation expense).

Accelerated depreciation

Any of several methods that recognize an increased amount
of depreciation in the earliest years of asset usage. This results in increased tax benefits
in the first few years of asset usage.

Accumulated depreciation

A contra-fixed asset account representing the portion of the cost of a fixed asset that has been previously charged to expense. Each fixed asset account will have its own associated accumulated depreciation account.

accumulated depreciation

A contra, or offset, account that is coupled
with the property, plant, and equipment asset account in which the original
costs of the long-term operating assets of a business are recorded.
The accumulated depreciation contra account accumulates the amount of
depreciation expense that is recorded period by period. So the balance in
this account is the cumulative amount of depreciation that has been
recorded since the assets were acquired. The balance in the accumulated
depreciation account is deducted from the original cost of the assets
recorded in the property, plant, and equipment asset account. The
remainder, called the book value of the assets, is the amount included on
the asset side of a business.

Accumulated depreciation

The sum total of all deprecation expense recognized to date
on a depreciable fixed asset.

Average Propensity to Consume

Ratio of consumption to disposable income. See also marginal propensity to consume.

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Capital Consumption Allowance

See depreciation.

Consumer credit

Credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called
retail credit.

Consumer Credit Protection Act

A federal Act specifying the proportion of
total pay that may be garnished.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

An index calculated by tracking the cost of a typical bundle of consumer goods and services over time. It is commonly used to measure inflation.

Consumption Function

The relationship between consumption demand and disposable income. More generally, it refers to the relationship between consumption demand and all factors that affect this demand.


A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to amortize the cost of acquiring Long term assets over the useful life of the assets.


A technique by which a company recovers the high cost of its plant-and-equipment assets gradually during the number of years they’ll be used in the business. depreciation can be physical, technological, or both.


An expense that spreads the cost of an asset over its useful life.

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Refers to the generally accepted accounting principle of allocating
the cost of a long-term operating asset over the estimated useful
life of the asset. Each year of use is allocated a part of the original cost of
the asset. Generally speaking, either the accelerated method or the
straight-line method of depreciation is used. (There are other methods,
but they are relatively rare.) Useful life estimates are heavily influenced
by the schedules allowed in the federal income tax law. depreciation is
not a cash outlay in the period in which the expense is recorded—just
the opposite. The cash inflow from sales revenue during the period
includes an amount to reimburse the business for the use of its fixed
assets. In this respect, depreciation is a source of cash. So depreciation is
added back to net income in the statement of cash flows to arrive at cash
flow from operating activities.


Reduction in value of fixed or tangible assets over some period
for accounting purposes. See Amortization.


Both the decline in value of an asset over time, as well as the gradual
expensing of an asset over time, roughly in accordance with its level of usage or
decline in value through that period.


a) Of capital stock: decline in the value of capital due to its wearing out or becoming obsolete.
b) Of currency: decline in the exchange rate.


The systematic and rational allocation of the cost of property, plant, and equipment
over their useful lives. Refer also to amortization and depletion.


Amortization of fixed assets, such as plant and equipment, so as to allocate the cost over their depreciable life.

Depreciation Allowances

Tax deductions that businesses can claim when they spend money on investment goods.

Depreciation expense

An expense account that represents the portion of the cost of an asset that is being charged to expense during the current period.

Depreciation tax shield

The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment.

depreciation tax shield

Reduction in taxes attributable to the depreciation allowance.

Double-declining-balance depreciation

Method of accelerated depreciation.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

An earningsbased measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. Actually consists of working
capital provided by operations before interest and taxes.

EBDDT - Earnings before depreciation and deferred taxes

This measure is used principally by
firms in the real estate industry, with the exception of real estate investment trusts, which typically
do not pay taxes.

Economic assumptions

Economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
financial plan.

Homogenous expectations assumption

An assumption of Markowitz portfolio construction that investors
have the same expectations with respect to the inputs that are used to derive efficient portfolios: asset returns,
variances, and covariances.

Marginal Propensity to Consume

Fraction of an increase in disposable income that is spent on consumption.

reinvestment assumption

an assumption made about the rates of return that will be earned by intermediate cash flows from a capital project; NPV and PI assume reinvestment at the discount rate; IRR assumes reinvestment at the IRR

Straight line depreciation

An equal dollar amount of depreciation in each accounting period.


A depreciation method that depreciates an asset the same amount for each year of its estimated

straight-line depreciation

This depreciation method allocates a uniform
amount of the cost of long-lived operating assets (fixed assets) to each
year of use. It is the basic alternative to the accelerated depreciation
method. When using the straight-line method, a business may estimate a
longer life for a fixed asset than when using the accelerated method
(though not necessarily in every case). Both methods are allowed for
income tax and under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

straight-line depreciation

Constant depreciation for each year of the asset’s accounting life.


An accelerated depreciation method that makes the sum of the digits in an asset’s expected
life the denominator for a series of yearly depreciation fractions.
The numerators of these fractions are the asset’s years of life in reverse order.
An increasingly smaller depreciation fraction is applied to the asset’s (cost–salvage) value each year.

Summarized bill of materials

A bill of materials format showing the grand total
usage requirement for each component of a finished product.

tax benefit (of depreciation)

the amount of depreciation deductible for tax purposes multiplied by the tax rate;
the reduction in taxes caused by the deductibility of depreciation

tax shield (of depreciation)

the amount of depreciation deductible
for tax purposes; the amount of revenue shielded
from taxes because of the depreciation deduction

Zero-sum game

A type of game wherein one player can gain only at the expense of another player.







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