Definition of Stock option
An option in which the underlying is the common stock of a corporation.
a right allowing the holder to purchase shares of common stock during some future time frame and at a specified price
A right to purchase a specific maximum number of shares at a specific
price no later than a specific date. It is a commonly used form of incentive compensation.
A nonqualified stock option that allows a deceased option holderâ€™s estate up to three years in which to exercise his or her
An option to purchase company stock that is not taxable
to the employee at the time it is granted nor at the time when the employee
eventually exercises the option to buy stock.
A stock option not given any favorable tax treatment
under the Internal Revenue Code. The option is taxed when it is exercised,
based on the difference between the option price and the fair market
value of the stock on that day.
An option in which the underlying is a common stock index.
The last day (in the case of American-style) or the only day (in the case of European-style)
on which an option may be exercised. For stock options, this date is the Saturday immediately following the
3rd Friday of the expiration month; however, brokerage firms may set an earlier deadline for notification of
an option holder's intention to exercise. If Friday is a holiday, the last trading day will be the preceding
This important ratio equals the net
income for a period (usually one year) divided by the number capital
stock shares issued by a business corporation. This ratio is so important
for publicly owned business corporations that it is included in the daily
stock trading tables published by the Wall Street Journal, the New York
Times, and other major newspapers. Despite being a rather straightforward
concept, there are several technical problems in calculating
earnings per share. Actually, two EPS ratios are needed for many businessesâ€”
basic EPS, which uses the actual number of capital shares outstanding,
and diluted EPS, which takes into account additional shares of
stock that may be issued for stock options granted by a business and
other stock shares that a business is obligated to issue in the future.
Also, many businesses report not one but two net income figuresâ€”one
before extraordinary gains and losses were recorded in the period and a
second after deducting these nonrecurring gains and losses. Many business
corporations issue more than one class of capital stock, which
makes the calculation of their earnings per share even more complicated.
Terms that refer to the combination of
capital sources that a business has tapped for investing in its assetsâ€”in
particular, the mix of its interest-bearing debt and its ownersâ€™ equity. In a
more sweeping sense, the terms also include appendages and other features
of the basic debt and equity instruments of a business. Such things
as stock options, stock warrants, and convertible features of preferred
stock and notes payable are included in the more inclusive sense of the
terms, as well as any debt-based and equity-based financial derivatives
issued by the business.
This measure of earnings per share
recognizes additional stock shares that may be issued in the future for
stock options and as may be required by other contracts a business has
entered into, such as convertible features in its debt securities and preferred
stock. Both basic earnings per share and, if applicable, diluted
earnings per share are reported by publicly owned business corporations.
Often the two EPS figures are not far apart, but in some cases the
gap is significant. Privately owned businesses do not have to report earnings
per share. See also basic earnings per share.
Refers to one of the two basic sources of capital for a business, the
other being debt (borrowed money). Most often, it is called ownersâ€™
equity because it refers to the capital used by a business that â€śbelongsâ€ť
to the ownership interests in the business. Ownersâ€™ equity arises from
two quite distinct sources: capital invested by the owners in the business
and profit (net income) earned by the business that is not distributed to
its owners (called retained earnings). Ownersâ€™ equity in our highly developed
and sophisticated economic and legal system can be very complexâ€”
involving stock options, financial derivatives of all kinds, different
classes of stock, convertible debt, and so on.
Either the collateral on a loan, or some type of equity ownership or debt, such
as a stock option or note payable.
A nonqualified stock option that uses a sliding scale for
the option price that changes in concert with a peer group index.
A nonqualified stock option whose option price is set substantially
higher than the current fair market value at the grant date.
The decision by an employee to recognize taxable income
on the purchase price of an incentive stock option within 30 days following
the date when an option is exercised and withhold taxes at the ordinary
income tax rate at that time.
Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.
The option of terminating an investment earlier than originally planned.
Acquisition of stock
A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.
Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)
Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.
An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date.
Related: European option
American Stock Exchange (AMEX)
The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.
An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and
the expiration date. Most exchange-traded options are American style.
Arbitrage-free option-pricing models
Yield curve option-pricing models.
option based on the average price of the asset during the life of the option.
Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)
Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.
Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.
Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.
Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.
Beta equation (Stocks)
The beta of a stock is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (24-60 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the stock
Binomial option pricing model
An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.
Black-Scholes option-pricing model
A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses
the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the standard deviation
of the stock return.
Call an option
To exercise a call option.
An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.
These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. Common shares let an
investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. They also give the holder a share in a company's
profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security.
Common stock/other equity
Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.
Common stock equivalent
A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned
common stock is trading high.
Common stock market
The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.
Common stock ratios
Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.
option on an option.
Conflict between bondholders and stockholders
These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.
Convertible exchangeable preferred stock
Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
Convertible preferred stock
Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.
Covered or hedge option strategies
Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies
Cumulative preferred stock
Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.
An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.
Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed
The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality
option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options make the buyer uncertain of which
Treasury Bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered.
Direct stock-purchase programs
The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.
Dividend yield (Stocks)
Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.
A sinking fund provision that may allow repurchase of twice the required number of bonds
at the sinking fund call price.
Barrier option that comes into existence if asset price hits a barrier.
Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.
Elasticity of an option
Percentage change in the value of an option given a 1% change in the value of the
option's underlying stock.
An option that is part of the structure of a bond that provides either the bondholder or
issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades
separately from any underlying security.
Employee stock fund
A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's
common stock on a preferential basis.
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock.
option that may be exercised only at the expiration date. Related: american option.
An option contract that can only be exercised on the expiration date.
Exchange of stock
Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.
Exercising the option
The act buying or selling the underlying asset via the option contract.
Foreign currency option
An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.
An option on a futures contract. Related: options on physicals.
Garmen-Kohlhagen option pricing model
A widely used model for pricing foreign currency options.
option that allows the underwriter for a new issue to buy and resell additional shares.
Common stock of a company that has an opportunity to invest money and earn more than the
opportunity cost of capital.
Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.
Index and Option Market (IOM)
A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index
products and options. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).
A call or put option based on a stock market index.
Intrinsic value of an option
The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.
Irrational call option
The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).
Privately placed common stock, so-called because the SEC requires a letter from the purchaser
stating that the stock is not intended for resale.
Liquid yield option note (LYON)
Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill
stocks that are traded on an exchange.
An option that allows the buyer to choose as the option strike price any price of the
underlying asset that has occurred during the life of the option. If a call, the buyer will choose the minimal
price, whereas if a put, the buyer will choose the maximum price. This option will always be in the money.
Liquid yield option note (LYON)
Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co.
stocks that are traded on an exchange.
Margin account (Stocks)
A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of
cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock
drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin
rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.
Margin requirement (Options)
The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.
Multi-option financing facility
A syndicated confirmed credit line with attached options.
Naked option strategies
An unhedged strategy making exclusive use of one of the following: Long call
strategy (buying call options ), short call strategy (selling or writing call options), Long put strategy (buying
put options ), and short put strategy (selling or writing put options). By themselves, these positions are called
naked strategies because they do not involve an offsetting or risk-reducing position in another option or the
Related: covered option strategies.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the
largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in New York City
Non-cumulative preferred stock
Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the
company misses a dividend payment.
Related: Cumulative preferred stock
Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a
given date. Investors, not companies, issue options. Investors who purchase call options bet the stock will be
worth more than the price set by the option (the strike price), plus the price they paid for the option itself.
Buyers of put options bet the stock's price will go down below the price set by the option. An option is part of
a class of securities called derivatives, so named because these securities derive their value from the worth of
an underlying investment.
The percentage increase in an option's value given a 1% change in the value of the
Option not to deliver
In the mortgage pipeline, an additional hedge placed in tandem with the forward or
The option price.
Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right
to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.
Also called the option writer , the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in
Option-adjusted spread (OAS)
1) The spread over an issuer's spot rate curve, developed as a measure of
the yield spread that can be used to convert dollar differences between theoretical value and market price.
2) The cost of the implied call embedded in a MBS, defined as additional basis-yield spread. When added to the
base yield spread of an MBS without an operative call produces the option-adjusted spread.
A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not
the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a
specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date).
Options contract multiple
A constant, set at $100, which when multiplied by the cash index value gives the
dollar value of the stock index underlying an option. That is, dollar value of the underlying stock index = cash
index value x $100 (the options contract multiple).
Options on physicals
Interest rate options written on fixed-income securities, as opposed to those written on
interest rate futures contracts.
A call option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is greater than the market price
of the underlying security. A put option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is less than the market price of
the underlying security.
Path dependent option
An option whose value depends on the sequence of prices of the underlying asset
rather than just the final price of the asset.
Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX)
A securities exchange where American and European foreign
currency options on spot exchange rates are traded.
The option of postponing a project without eliminating the possibility of undertaking it.
Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC)
Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a
stated date. A limit is placed on the value of the shares the investor receives.
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