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Incentive Stock Option

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Definition of Incentive Stock Option

Incentive Stock Option Image 1

Incentive Stock Option

An option to purchase company stock that is not taxable
to the employee at the time it is granted nor at the time when the employee
eventually exercises the option to buy stock.



Related Terms:

Section 83(b) Election

The decision by an employee to recognize taxable income
on the purchase price of an incentive stock option within 30 days following
the date when an option is exercised and withhold taxes at the ordinary
income tax rate at that time.


Abandonment option

The option of terminating an investment earlier than originally planned.


Acquisition of stock

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.


Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


American option

An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date.
Related: European option



American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.


American-style option

An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and
the expiration date. Most exchange-traded options are American style.


Incentive Stock Option Image 2

Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.


Asian option

option based on the average price of the asset during the life of the option.


Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.


Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.


Beta equation (Stocks)

The beta of a stock is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (24-60 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the stock


Binomial option pricing model

An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.


Black-Scholes option-pricing model

A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses
the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the standard deviation
of the stock return.


Incentive Stock Option Image 3

Call an option

To exercise a call option.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.



Common stock

These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. Common shares let an
investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. They also give the holder a share in a company's
profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security.


Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.


Common stock equivalent

A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned
common stock is trading high.


Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.


Common stock ratios

Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.


Compound option

option on an option.


Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.


Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.


Convertible preferred stock

Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.


Incentive Stock Option Image 4

Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies



Cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.


Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.


Dealer options

Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed
securities dealers.


Delivery options

The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality
option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options make the buyer uncertain of which
Treasury Bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered.


Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.


Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.


Doubling option

A sinking fund provision that may allow repurchase of twice the required number of bonds
at the sinking fund call price.


Down-and-in option

Barrier option that comes into existence if asset price hits a barrier.


Down-and-out option

Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.


Elasticity of an option

Percentage change in the value of an option given a 1% change in the value of the
option's underlying stock.


Embedded option

An option that is part of the structure of a bond that provides either the bondholder or
issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades
separately from any underlying security.


Employee stock fund

A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's
common stock on a preferential basis.


Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
employees.


Equity options

Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock.


European option

option that may be exercised only at the expiration date. Related: american option.


European-style option

An option contract that can only be exercised on the expiration date.


Exchange of stock

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.


Exercising the option

The act buying or selling the underlying asset via the option contract.


Foreign currency option

An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.


Futures option

An option on a futures contract. Related: options on physicals.


Garmen-Kohlhagen option pricing model

A widely used model for pricing foreign currency options.


Greenshoe option

option that allows the underwriter for a new issue to buy and resell additional shares.


Growth stock

Common stock of a company that has an opportunity to invest money and earn more than the
opportunity cost of capital.


Income stock

Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.


Index and Option Market (IOM)

A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index
products and options. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


Index option

A call or put option based on a stock market index.


Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.


Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).


Letter stock

Privately placed common stock, so-called because the SEC requires a letter from the purchaser
stating that the stock is not intended for resale.


Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill


Listed stocks

stocks that are traded on an exchange.


Lookback option

An option that allows the buyer to choose as the option strike price any price of the
underlying asset that has occurred during the life of the option. If a call, the buyer will choose the minimal
price, whereas if a put, the buyer will choose the maximum price. This option will always be in the money.


Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co.


Listed stocks

stocks that are traded on an exchange.


Margin account (Stocks)

A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of
cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock
drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin
rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.


Margin requirement (Options)

The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.


Multi-option financing facility

A syndicated confirmed credit line with attached options.


Naked option strategies

An unhedged strategy making exclusive use of one of the following: Long call
strategy (buying call options ), short call strategy (selling or writing call options), Long put strategy (buying
put options ), and short put strategy (selling or writing put options). By themselves, these positions are called
naked strategies because they do not involve an offsetting or risk-reducing position in another option or the
underlying security.
Related: covered option strategies.


New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the
largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in New York City


Non-cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the
company misses a dividend payment.
Related: Cumulative preferred stock


Option

Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a
given date. Investors, not companies, issue options. Investors who purchase call options bet the stock will be
worth more than the price set by the option (the strike price), plus the price they paid for the option itself.
Buyers of put options bet the stock's price will go down below the price set by the option. An option is part of
a class of securities called derivatives, so named because these securities derive their value from the worth of
an underlying investment.


Option elasticity

The percentage increase in an option's value given a 1% change in the value of the
underlying security.


Option not to deliver

In the mortgage pipeline, an additional hedge placed in tandem with the forward or
substitute sale.


Option premium

The option price.


Option price

Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right
to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.


Option seller

Also called the option writer , the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in
the future.


Option writer

option seller.


Option-adjusted spread (OAS)

1) The spread over an issuer's spot rate curve, developed as a measure of
the yield spread that can be used to convert dollar differences between theoretical value and market price.
2) The cost of the implied call embedded in a MBS, defined as additional basis-yield spread. When added to the
base yield spread of an MBS without an operative call produces the option-adjusted spread.


Options contract

A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not
the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a
specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date).


Options contract multiple

A constant, set at $100, which when multiplied by the cash index value gives the
dollar value of the stock index underlying an option. That is, dollar value of the underlying stock index = cash
index value x $100 (the options contract multiple).


Options on physicals

Interest rate options written on fixed-income securities, as opposed to those written on
interest rate futures contracts.


Out-of-the-money option

A call option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is greater than the market price
of the underlying security. A put option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is less than the market price of
the underlying security.


Path dependent option

An option whose value depends on the sequence of prices of the underlying asset
rather than just the final price of the asset.


Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX)

A securities exchange where American and European foreign
currency options on spot exchange rates are traded.


Postponement option

The option of postponing a project without eliminating the possibility of undertaking it.


Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC)

Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a
stated date. A limit is placed on the value of the shares the investor receives.


Preference stock

A security that ranks junior to preferred stock but senior to common stock in the right to
receive payments from the firm; essentially junior preferred stock.


Preferred stock

A security that shows ownership in a corporation and gives the holder a claim, prior to the
claim of common stockholders, on earnings and also generally on assets in the event of liquidation. Most
preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that is paid prior to the common stock dividend, stated in a dollar
amount or as a percentage of par value. This stock does not usually carry voting rights. The stock shares
characteristics of both common stock and debt.


Preferred stock agreement

A contract for preferred stock.


Put an option

To exercise a put option.


Put option

This security gives investors the right to sell (or put) fixed number of shares at a fixed price within
a given time frame. An investor, for example, might wish to have the right to sell shares of a stock at a certain
price by a certain time in order to protect, or hedge, an existing investment.


Quality option

Also called the swap option, the seller's choice of deliverables in Treasury Bond and Treasury
note futures contract. Related: cheapest to deliver issue


Repurchase of stock

Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferable tax treatment
for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been
repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a dutch auction, open market, or tender offer.


Reverse stock split

A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the value of shares of stock
held by shareholders. Shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a
1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning 1 share for every 3 shares owned before the split. After the
reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, worth three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm
generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price and attract investors.


Split-fee option

An option on an option. The buyer generally executes the split fee with first an initial fee,
with a window period at the end of which upon payment of a second fee the original terms of the option may
be extended to a later predetermined final notification date.


Stock

Ownership of a corporation which is represented by shares which represent a piece of the corporation's
assets and earnings.


Stock dividend

Payment of a corporate dividend in the form of stock rather than cash. The stock dividend
may be additional shares in the company, or it may be shares in a subsidiary being spun off to shareholders.
stock dividends are often used to conserve cash needed to operate the business. Unlike a cash dividend, stock
dividends are not taxed until sold.


Stock exchanges

Formal organizations, approved and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC), that are made up of members that use the facilities to exchange certain common stocks. The two major
national stock exchanges are the New York stock Exchange (NYSE) and the American stock Exchange (ASE
or AMEX). Five regional stock exchanges include the Midwest, Pacific, Philadelphia, Boston, and Cincinnati.
The Arizona stock exchange is an after hours electronic marketplace where anonymous participants trade
stocks via personal computers.


Stock repurchase

A firm's repurchase of outstanding shares of its common stock.


Stock selection

An active portfolio management technique that focuses on advantageous selection of
particular stocks rather than on broad asset allocation choices.


Stockholder equity

Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It
includes capital stock, paid in surplus, and retained earnings.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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