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Definition of Shareholder

Shareholder Image 1

Shareholder

Owner of one or more shares of stock in a corporation.



Related Terms:

Shareholder's Equity

Represents the total assets of a corporation less liabilities.


Shareholder value

Increasing the value of the business to its shareholders, achieved through a combination of
dividend and capital growth in the value of the shares.


Shareholders' equity

This is a company's total assets minus total liabilities. A company's net worth is the
same thing.


Shareholders' equity

The total amount of contributed capital and retained earnings; synonymous with stockholders' equity.


Shareholders' Equity

The residual interest or owners' claims on the assets of a corporation
that remain after deducting its liabilities.



Shareholders’ funds

The capital invested in a business by the shareholders, including retained profits.


Shareholders' letter

A section of an annual report where one can find jargon-free discussions by
management of successful and failed strategies which provides guidance for the probing of the rest of the
report.


Shareholder Image 2

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

Cumulative gains or losses reported in shareholders'
equity that arise from changes in the fair value of available-for-sale securities, from the
effects of changes in foreign-currency exchange rates on consolidated foreign-currency financial
statements, certain gains and losses on financial derivatives, and from adjustments for underfunded
pension plans.


Annual fund operating expenses

For investment companies, the management fee and "other expenses,"
including the expenses for maintaining shareholder records, providing shareholders with financial statements,
and providing custodial and accounting services. For 12b-1 funds, selling and marketing costs are included.


Annual report

Yearly record of a publicly held company's financial condition. It includes a description of the
firm's operations, its balance sheet and income statement. SEC rules require that it be distributed to all
shareholders. A more detailed version is called a 10-K.


Annual report

A report issued to a company’s shareholders, creditors, and regulatory
organizations at the end of its fiscal year. It typically contains at least an income
statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, and accompanying footnotes. It
may also contain management comments, an audit report, and other supporting
schedules that may be required by regulatory organizations.


Antidilution Provisions

A clause in a shareholders agreement preventing a company from issuing additional shares, without allowing the current shareholders the opportunity to participate in the offering to avoid dilution of their percentage ownership.


Appraisal rights

A right of shareholders in a merger to demand the payment of a fair price for their shares, as
determined independently.


Block voting

A group of shareholders banding together to vote their shares in a single block.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Capital

The shareholders’ investment in the business; the difference between the assets and liabilities
of a business.


Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in
addition to the dividend.


cash dividend

Payment of cash by the firm to its shareholders.



Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Credit Union

Credit unions are community based financial co-operatives and most offer a full range of services. All are owned and controlled by members who are also shareholders. Credit unions are regulated provincially and insured by a stabilization fund, deposit insurance or guarantee corporation.
Credit unions are supported by a system of provincial credit union Centrals, a national credit union Central and affiliated national financial co-operatives.


Cumulative voting

A system of voting for directors of a corporation in which shareholder's total number of
votes is equal to his number of shares held times the number of candidates.


cumulative voting

Voting system in which all the votes one shareholder is allowed to cast can be cast for one candidate for the board of directors.


Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity.


Distributions

Payments from fund or corporate cash flow. May include dividends from earnings, capital
gains from sale of portfolio holdings and return of capital. Fund distributions can be made by check or by
investing in additional shares. Funds are required to distribute capital gains (if any) to shareholders at least
once per year. Some Corporations offer Dividend Reinvestment Plans (DRP).


Dividend

A dividend is a portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders. A stock
selling for $20 a share with an annual dividend of $1 a share yields the investor 5%.


Dividend

The payment of after-tax profits to shareholders as their share of the profits of the business for an accounting period.


Dividend

A payment made to shareholders that is proportional to the number of shares
owned. It is authorized by the Board of Directors.



dividend

Periodic cash distribution from the firm to its shareholders.


Dividend

Unlike dividends which are paid to company shareholders, participating insurance policy dividends are not based on the company's overall profits. Rather, they are determined by grouping policies by type and country of issue and looking at how each class contributes to the company's earnings and surplus.


Dividend clientele

A group of shareholders who prefer that the firm follow a particular dividend policy. For
example, such a preference is often based on comparable tax situations.


dividend growth method

a method of computing the cost
of common stock equity that indicates the rate of return
that common shareholders expect to earn in the form of
dividends on a company’s common stock


Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the Long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the
holder.


Dividend rights

A shareholders' rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive.


Dividends

Profits paid out to shareholders by a corporation.


Dividends per share

Amount of cash paid to shareholders expressed as dollars per share.


Earnings per Share

A measure of the earnings generated by a company on a per
share basis. It is calculated by dividing income available for
distribution to shareholders by the number of common shares
outstanding.


Equity

Funds raised from shareholders.


Equity

The net worth of a business, consisting of capital stock, capital (or paid-in) surplus (or retained earnings), and, occasionally, certain net worth reserves. Common equity is that part of the total net worth belonging to the common shareholders. Total equity includes preferred shareholders. The terms common stock, net worth, and common equity are frequently used interchangeably.


equity

The net worth of a company. This represents the ownership interest of the shareholders (common and preferred) of a company. For this reason, shares or stocks are often known as equities.


Expense ratio

The percentage of the assets that were spent to run a mutual fund (as of the last annual
statement). This includes expenses such as management and advisory fees, overhead costs and 12b-1
(distribution and advertising ) fees. The expense ratio does not include brokerage costs for trading the
portfolio, although these are reported as a percentage of assets to the SEC by the funds in a Statement of
Additional Information (SAI). the SAI is available to shareholders on request. Neither the expense ratio or the
SAI includes the transaction costs of spreads, normally incurred in unlisted securities and foreign stocks.
These two costs can add significantly to the reported expenses of a fund. The expense ratio is often termed an
Operating Expense Ratio (OER).


financial risk

Risk to shareholders resulting from the use of debt.


Flow-through method

The practice of reporting to shareholders using straight-line depreciation and
accelerated depreciation for tax purposes and "flowing through" the lower income taxes actually paid to the
financial statement prepared for shareholders.


Gearing

A measure of the extent of long-term debt in comparison with shareholders’ funds.


Leverage clientele

A group of shareholders who, because of their personal leverage, seek to invest in
corporations that maintain a compatible degree of corporate leverage.


Liquidation

When a firm's business is terminated, assets are sold, proceeds pay creditors and any leftovers
are distributed to shareholders. Any transaction that offsets or closes out a Long or short position. Related:
buy in, evening up, offsetliquidity.


Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.


Mangement's discussion

A report from management to the shareholders that accompanies the firm's
financial statements in the annual report. This report explains the period's financial results and enables
management to discuss other ideas that may not be apparent in the financial statements in the annual report.


Net Worth

The difference between the total assets and total liabilities of a company. Note: The value of the preferred shares is deducted from the net worth because the preferred's are usually redeemed before any value is paid to the common shareholders.


Normalizing method

The practice of making a charge in the income account equivalent to the tax savings
realized through the use of different depreciation methods for shareholder and income tax purposes, thus
washing out the benefits of the tax savings reported as final net income to shareholders.


Oversubscription privilege

In a rights issue, arrangement by which shareholders are given the right to apply
for any shares that are not taken up.


Paid-up Capital

That part of the issued capital of a company that has been paid up by the shareholders.


Payment date

The date on which each shareholder of record will be sent a check for the declared dividend.


Performance shares

Shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings
per share and similar criteria. A control device used by shareholders to tie management to the self-interest of
shareholders.


Poison pill

Anit-takeover device that gives a prospective acquiree's shareholders the right to buy shares of the
firm or shares of anyone who acquires the firm at a deep discount to their fair market value. Named after the
cyanide pill that secret agents are instructed to swallow if capture is imminent.


poison pill

Measure taken by a target firm to avoid acquisition;
for example, the right for existing shareholders to buy additional
shares at an attractive price if a bidder acquires a large holding.


Preferred shares

Preferred shares give investors a fixed dividend from the company's earnings. And more
importantly: preferred shareholders get paid before common shareholders. See: preferred stock.


Profit Margin Ratio

A measure of how much profit is earned on each dollar of sales. It
is calculated by dividing the net income available for distribution to
shareholders by the total sales generated during the period.


Proxy

Document intended to provide shareholders with information necessary to vote in an informed manner
on matters to be brought up at a stockholders' meeting. Includes information on closely held shares.
shareholders can and often do give management their proxy, representing the right and responsibility to vote
their shares as specified in the proxy statement.


Proxy contest

A battle for the control of a firm in which the dissident group seeks, from the firm's other
shareholders, the right to vote those shareholder's shares in favor of the dissident group's slate of directors.
Also called proxy fight.


proxy contest

Takeover attempt in which outsiders compete with management for shareholders’ votes. Also called proxy fight.


Record date

1) Date by which a shareholder must officially own shares in order to be entitled to a dividend.
For example, a firm might declare a dividend on Nov 1, payable Dec 1 to holders of record Nov 15. Once a
trade is executed an investor becomes the "owner of record" on settlement, which currently takes 5 business
days for securities, and one business day for mutual funds. Stocks trade ex-dividend the fourth day before the
record date, since the seller will still be the owner of record and is thus entitled to the dividend.
2) The date that determines who is entitled to payment of principal and interest due to be paid on a security. The record
date for most MBSs is the last day of the month, however the last day on which they may be presented for the
transfer is the last business day of the month. The record date for CMOs and asset-backed securities vary with each issue.


Record date

The date used to decide which shareholders will receive the dividend. The owners of the shares at the end of this day are entitled to the dividend.


Repurchase of stock

Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferable tax treatment
for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been
repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a dutch auction, open market, or tender offer.


Residual losses

Lost wealth of the shareholders due to divergent behavior of the managers.


Retained earnings

A company’s accumulated earnings since its inception, less any distributions to shareholders.


Return on capital employed (ROCE)

The operating profit before interest and tax as a percentage of the total shareholders’ funds plus
the long-term debt of the business.


Return on Common Equity Ratio

A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
common equity invested in the company. It is calculated by
dividing the net income available for distribution to shareholders
by the book value of the common equity.


Return on investment (ROI)

The net profit after tax as a percentage of the shareholders’ investment in the business.


Return on Total Assets Ratio

A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
assets in the company. It is calculated by dividing the net income
available for distribution to shareholders by the book value of all
assets.


Reverse stock split

A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the value of shares of stock
held by shareholders. shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a
1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning 1 share for every 3 shares owned before the split. After the
reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, worth three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm
generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price and attract investors.


Right

A short-lived (typically less than 90 days) call option for purchasing additional stock in a firm, issued
by the firm to all its shareholders on a pro rata basis.


Rights offering

Issuance of "rights" to current shareholders allowing them to purchase additional shares,
usually at a discount to market price. shareholders who do not exercise these rights are usually diluted by the
offering. Rights are often transferable, allowing the holder to sell them on the open market to others who may
wish to exercise them. Rights offerings are particularly common to closed end funds, which cannot otherwise
issue additional common stock.


Set of contracts perspective

View of corporation as a set of contracting relationships, among individuals
who have conflicting objectives, such as shareholders or managers. The corporation is a legal contrivance that
serves as the nexus for the contracting relationships.


sole proprietor

Sole owner of a business which has no partners and no shareholders. The proprietor is personally liable for all the firm’s obligations.


Stock

Units of ownership, also called shares, in a public corporation. Owners of such units, called shareholders, share in the earnings of the company through dividends. The price of a stock is determined by supply and demand in the stock market.


Stock dividend

Payment of a corporate dividend in the form of stock rather than cash. The stock dividend
may be additional shares in the company, or it may be shares in a subsidiary being spun off to shareholders.
Stock dividends are often used to conserve cash needed to operate the business. Unlike a cash dividend, stock
dividends are not taxed until sold.


stock repurchase

Firm buys back stock from its shareholders.


Stockholders' equity

The total amount of contributed capital and retained earnings; synonymous with shareholders’ equity.


Straight voting

A shareholder may cast all of his votes for each candidate for the board of directors.


strategic resource management

organizational planning for the deployment of resources to create value for customers and shareholders; key varibles in the process include the management of information and the management of change in response to threats and opportunities


Subscription price

Price that the existing shareholders are allowed to pay for a share of stock in a rights offering.


Supermajority

Provision in a company's charter requiring a majority of, say, 80% of shareholders to approve
certain changes, such as a merger.


Takeover

General term referring to transfer of control of a firm from one group of shareholder's to another
group of shareholders.


Tax differential view ( of dividend policy)

The view that shareholders prefer capital gains over dividends,
and hence low payout ratios, because capital gains are effectively taxed at lower rates than dividends.


Taxable acquisition

A merger or consolidation that is not a tax-fee acquisition. The selling shareholders are
treated as having sold their shares.


Tender offer

General offer made publicly and directly to a firm's shareholders to buy their stock at a price
well above the current market price.


tender offer

Takeover attempt in which outsiders directly offer to buy the stock of the firm’s shareholders.


Total debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to
shareholders' equity.


Transferable put right

An option issued by the firm to its shareholders to sell the firm one share of its
common stock at a fixed price (the strike price) within a stated period (the time to maturity). The put right is
"transferable" because it can be traded in the capital markets.


Two-tier tax system

A method of taxation in which the income going to shareholders is taxed twice.


Unissued stock

Stock that has been authorized for use, but which has not yet been
released for sale to prospective shareholders.


Value-based management

A variety of approaches that emphasize increasing shareholder value as the primary goal of every business.


weighted average cost of capital

a composite of the cost of the various sources of funds that comprise a firm’s capital structure; the minimum rate of return that must be earned on new investments so as not to dilute shareholder value



 

 

 

 

 

 

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