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Definition of Routing
A list of all the labour or machining processes and times required to convert raw materials into finished goods or to deliver a service.
see operations flow document
A budget cost for materials and labour used for decision-making, usually expressed as a per unit cost that is applied to standard quantities from a bill of materials and to standard times from a
The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal.
costs that are identifiable with and able to be influenced by decisions made at the business
When a cost is recorded originally as an increase
costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.
costs of maintaining current assets, including opportunity cost of capital.
The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation standards Implementation
A federal Act requiring federal contractors to pay overtime for hours worked exceeding 40 per week.
a body established by Congress in 1970 to promulgate cost accounting
A particularly egregious form of aggressive cost capitalization
costs arising from bankruptcy or distorted business decisions before bankruptcy.
costs that are readily traceable to particular products or services.
Commercial paper backed by normal bank lines plus a letter of credit from a
a standard representing beliefs about moral
The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have
standard set at a level that reflects what
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
A federal Act creating standards of overtime
Financial distress costs
Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
costs that do not change with increases or decreases in the volume of goods or services
costs that do not depend on the level of output.
fixed expenses (costs)
Expenses or costs that remain the same in amount,
costs, both implied and direct, associated with a transaction. Such costs include time, effort,
The price of obtaining capital, either borrowed or equity, with intent to carry on business operations.
Gold exchange standard
A system of fixing exchange rates adopted in the Bretton Woods agreement. It
An international monetary system in which currencies are defined in terms of their gold
A fixed exchange rate system in which a currency is directly convertible into gold.
a standard that provides for no inefficiencies
Incremental costs and benefits
costs and benefits that would occur if a particular course of action were
costs that are necessary to produce a product/service but are not readily traceable to particular products or services – see overhead.
Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Market impact costs
Also called price impact costs, the result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession.
Market timing costs
costs that arise from price movement of the stock during the time of the transaction
The costs to firms of changing their prices.
operations flow document
a document listing all operations
The difference in the performance of an actual investment and a desired investment
Overhead generally refers to indirect, in contrast to direct,
The planned reduction of similar parts through the standardization
see ideal standard
The costs that relate to a period of time.
Policy Acquisition Costs
costs incurred by insurance companies in signing new policies, including expenditures on commissions and other selling expenses, promotion expenses, premium
The costs of additional regulation, including higher taxes, borne by large and
a standard that can be reached or slightly
A form of start-up cost incurred in preparing for the opening of a new store or facility.
Price impact costs
Related: market impact costs
Round-trip transactions costs
costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact
costs associated with locating a counterparty to a trade, including explicit costs (such as
costs that are constant within a defined level of activity but that can increase or decrease when
costs that have both fixed and variable components.
costs incurred from shortages in current assets.
The document that records a transaction and forms the basis for recording in a business’s
a model or budget against which actual results are
Common-sized containers that are used to efficiently move,
a budgeted or estimated cost to manufacture
A predetermined cost that is based on original engineering designs and
standard cost card
a document that summarizes the direct
standard cost system
a valuation method that uses predetermined
The square root of the variance. A measure of dispersion of a set of data from their mean.
A statistical term that measures the dispersion of a variable
the measure of variability of data around
A measure of the variation in a distribution, equal to the
Square root of variance. Another measure of volatility.
In statistics, a measure of the possible error in an estimate.
standard error of the estimate
a measure of dispersion that reflects the average difference between actual observations and expected results provided by a regression line
standard overhead application rate
a predetermined overhead rate used in a standard cost system; it can be a separate variable or fixed rate or a combined overhead rate
Standard & Poor’s Composite Index
Index of the investment performance of a portfolio of 500 large stocks. Also called the
standard quantity allowed
the quantity of input (in hours or some other cost driver measurement) required at standard for the output actually achieved for the period
Standardized normal distribution
A normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by
costs related to such onetime activities as opening a new facility, introducing
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52
This is the currency translation standard currently
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 8
This is a currency translation standard previously in
costs that have been incurred and cannot be reversed.
costs that have been incurred in the past.
costs that have been incurred and cannot be recovered.
costs of buying and selling marketable securities and borrowing. Trading costs include
The time, effort, and money necessary, including such things as commission fees and the
Undepreciated Capital Costs
The tax definition of the value of an asset that is eligible for tax deprecation.
costs that change as the level of output changes.