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Definition of Right

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Right

A short-lived (typically less than 90 days) call option for purchasing additional stock in a firm, issued
by the firm to all its shareholders on a pro rata basis.



Related Terms:

Absolute Right of Return

Goods may be returned to the seller by the purchaser without restrictions.


Appraisal rights

A right of shareholders in a merger to demand the payment of a fair price for their shares, as
determined independently.


Conversion Right

Term life insurance products are offered as non-convertible or convertible to a certain time in the future. The coversion right has a time limit, usually to the policy holder's age 60 or possibly even age 70. This right means that the policy holder has the right to convert their existing policy to another specific different plan of permanent insurance within the specified time period, without providing evidence of insurability. There is a slightly higher cost for a term policy with the conversion priviledge but it is a valuable feature should a policy holder's health change for the worst and continued insurance coverage becomes a necessity.
Most often this right is also granted to individuals covered under employee group benefit policies where individuals leaving the employee group have a limited amount of time, usually anywhere from 30 to 90 days, to convert to a specific permanent individual policy without evidence of insurability.


Cum rights

With rights.


Dividend rights

A shareholders' rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive.



Ex-rights

In connection with a rights offering, shares of stock that are trading without the rights attached.


Ex-rights date

The date on which a share of common stock begins trading ex-rights.


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Liquidation rights

The rights of a firm's securityholders in the event the firm liquidates.


Outright rate

Actual forward rate expressed in dollars per currency unit, or vice versa.
Outsourcing
he practice of purchasing a significant percentage of intermediate components from outside suppliers.


Preemptive right

Common stockholder's right to anything of value distributed by the company.


Property rights

rights of individuals and companies to own and utilize property as they see fit and to receive
the stream of income that their property generates.


Right of Return

A sales agreement provision that permits a buyer to return products purchased
for an agreed-upon period of time.


rights issue

Issue of securities offered only to current stockholders.


Rights offering

Issuance of "rights" to current shareholders allowing them to purchase additional shares,
usually at a discount to market price. Shareholders who do not exercise these rights are usually diluted by the
offering. rights are often transferable, allowing the holder to sell them on the open market to others who may
wish to exercise them. rights offerings are particularly common to closed end funds, which cannot otherwise
issue additional common stock.


Rights-on

Shares trading with rights attached to them.


Special drawing rights (SDR)

A form of international reserve assets, created by the IMF in 1967, whose
value is based on a portfolio of widely used currencies.


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stock appreciation right

a right to receive cash, stock, or a combination of cash and stock based on the difference between a specified dollar amount per share of stock and the quoted market price per share at some future date


Transferable put right

An option issued by the firm to its shareholders to sell the firm one share of its
common stock at a fixed price (the strike price) within a stated period (the time to maturity). The put right is
"transferable" because it can be traded in the capital markets.



Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994

A federal act that minimizes the impact on people serving in the Armed Forces
when they return to civilian employment by avoiding discrimination and increasing
their employment opportunities.


Voting rights

The right to vote on matters that are put to a vote of security holders. For example the right to
vote for directors.


With rights

Purchase of shares in which the buyer is entitled to the rights to buy shares in the company's
rights issue.


authority

the right (usually by virtue of position or rank) to use resources to accomplish a task or achieve an objective


Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.


Beneficiary

This is the person who benefits from the terms of a trust, a will, an RRSP, a RRIF, a LIF, an annuity or a life insurance policy. In relation to RRSP's, RRIF's, LIF's, Annuities and of course life insurance, if the beneficiary is a spouse, parent, offspring or grand-child, they are considered to be a preferred beneficiary. If the insured has named a preferred beneficiary, the death benefit is invariably protected from creditors. There have been some court challenges of this right of protection but so far they have been unsuccessful. See "Creditor Protection" below. A beneficiary under the age of 18 must be represented by an individual guardian over the age of 18 or a public official who represents minors generally. A policy owner may, in the designation of a beneficiary, appoint someone to act as trustee for a minor. Death benefits are not subject to income taxes. If you make your beneficiary your estate, the death benefit will be included in your assets for probate. Probate filing fees are currently $14 per thousand of estate value in British Columbia and $15 per thousand of estate value in Ontario.
Another way to avoid probate fees or creditor claims against life insurance proceeds is for the insured person to designate and register with his/her insurance company's head office an irrevocable beneficiary. By making such a designation, the insured gives up the right to make any changes to his/her policy without the consent of the irrevocable beneficiary. Because of the seriousness of the implications, an irrevocable designation should only be made for good reason and where the insured fully understands the consequences.
NoteA successful challenge of the rules relating to beneficiaries was concluded in an Ontario court in 1996. The Insurance Act says its provisions relating to beneficiaries are made "notwithstanding the Succession Law Reform Act." There are two relevent provisions of the Succession Law Reform Act. One section of the act gives a judge the power to make any order concerning an estate if the deceased person has failed to provide for a dependant. Another section says money from a life insurance policy can be considered part of the estate if an order is made to support a dependant. In the case in question, the deceased had attempted to deceive his lawful dependents by making his common-law-spouse the beneficiary of an insurance policy which by court order was supposed to name his ex-spouse and children as beneficiaries.


Bond indenture

The contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of
investors.


Call

An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.


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Call Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to buy an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date



call option

right to buy an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.


Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


Callable

A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.


Capital lease

A lease in which the lessee obtains some ownership rights over the asset
involved in the transaction, resulting in the recording of the asset as company property
on its general ledger.


Common Stock

That part of the capital stock of a corporation that carries voting rights and represents
the last claim on assets and dividends.


Contract

A formal written statement of the rights and obligations of each party to a transaction.


Credit

One side of a journal entry, usually depicted as the right side.


Date of record

Date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the recipients of
either dividends or stock rights.


Derivative

A financial instrument that is based on some underlying asset.
For example, an option is a derivative instrument based on the right to buy or
sell an underlying instrument.


Dividend

As the term dividend relates to a corporation's earnings, a dividend is an amount paid per share from a corporation's after tax profits. Depending on the type of share, it may or may not have the right to earn any dividends and corporations may reduce or even suspend dividend payments if they are not doing well. Some dividends are paid in the form of additional shares of the corporation. Dividends paid by Canadian corporations qualify for the dividend tax credit and are taxed at lower rates than other income.
As the term dividend relates to a life insurance policy, it means that if that policy is "participating", the policy owner is entitled to participate in an equitable distribution of the surplus earnings of the insurance company which issued the policy. Surpluses arise primarily from three sources:
1) the difference between anticipated and actual operating expenses,
2) the difference between anticipated and actual claims experience, and
3) interest earned on investments over and above the rate required to maintain policy reserves. Having regard to the source of the surplus, the "dividend" so paid can be considered, in part at least, as a refund of part of the premium paid by the policy owner.
Life insurance policy owners of participating policies usually have four and sometimes five dividend options from which to choose:
1) take the dividend in cash,
2) apply the dividend to reduce current premiums,
3) leave the dividends on deposit with the insurance company to accumulate at interest like a savings plan,
4) use the dividends to purchase paid-up whole life insurance to mature at the same time as the original policy,
5) use the dividends to purchase one year term insurance equal to the guaranteed cash value at the end of the policy year, with any portion of the dividend not required for this purpose being applied under one of the other dividend options.
NOTE: It is suggested here that if you have a participating whole life policy and at the time of purchase received a "dividend projection" of incredible future savings, ask for a current projection. Life insurance company's surpluses are not what they used to be.


Dollar Cost Averaging

A way of smoothing out your investment deposits by investing regularly. Instead of making one large deposit a year into your RRSP, you make smaller regular monthly deposits. If you are buying units in a mutual fund or segregated equity fund, you would end up buying more units in the month that values were low and less units in the month that values were higher. By spreading out your purchases, you don't have to worry about buying at the right time.


Embedded option

An option that is part of the structure of a bond that provides either the bondholder or
issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades
separately from any underlying security.


Equity options

Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock.


Exchangeable Security

Security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.


Exercise

To implement the right of the holder of an option to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of
a put) the underlying security.


Expropriation

The official seizure by a government of private property. Any government has the right to
seize such property, according to international law, if prompt and adequate compensation is given.


Fair price provision

See:appraisal rights.


Foreign currency option

An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.


Futures contract

Agreement to buy or sell a set number of shares of a specific stock in a designated future
month at a price agreed upon by the buyer and seller. The contracts themselves are often traded on the futures
market. A futures contract differs from an option because an option is the right to buy or sell, whereas a
futures contract is the promise to actually make a transaction. A future is part of a class of securities called
derivatives, so named because such securities derive their value from the worth of an underlying investment.


High-low-close chart

A financial chart usually used to plot the high, low,
open, and close price of a security over time. Plots are vertical lines whose top
is the high, bottom is the low, open is a short horizontal tick to the left, and
close is a short horizontal tick to the right.


Holder-of-record date

The date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the
recipients of either dividends or stock rights. Also called date of record.


Hypothecation

The pledge of property and assets to secure a loan. Hypothecation does not transfer title, but it does provide the right to sell the hypothecated property in the event of default.


Implied call

The right of the homeowner to prepay, or call, the mortgage at any time.


Indenture

Agreement between lender and borrower which details specific terms of the bond issuance.
Specifies legal obligations of bond issuer and rights of bondholders.


Insurable Interest

In England in the 1700's it was popular to bet on the date of death of certain prominent public figures. Anyone could buy life insurance on another's life, even without their consent. Unfortunately, some died before it was their time, dispatched prematurely in order that the life insurance proceeds could be collected. In 1774, English Parliament passed a law which restricted the right to be a beneficiary on a life insurance contract to those who would suffer an economic loss when the life insured died. The law also provided that a person has an unlimited insurable interest in his own life. It is still a legal stipulation that an insurance contract is not valid unless insurable interest exists at the time the policy is issued. Life Insurance companies will not, however, issue unlimited amounts of coverage to an individual. The amount of life insurance which will be approved has to approximate the loss caused by the death of the individual and must not result in a windfall for the beneficiary.


Intangible asset

A legal claim to some future benefit, typically a claim to future cash. Goodwill, intellectual
property, patents, copyrights, and trademarks are examples of intangible assets.


Intangible asset

A nonphysical asset with a life greater than one year. Examples are
goodwill, patents, trademarks, and copyrights.


Intangible assets

Assets owned by the company that do not possess physical substance; they usually take the form of rights and privileges such as patents, copyrights, and franchises.


Investment Banker

Middleman between a corporation issuing new securities and the public. The middleman buys the securities issue outright and then resells it to customers. Also called an underwriter.


Lien

The right of a party to a contract to take possession of an asset unless payment under the contract is received in full. A lien must be registered under the various provincial laws in order to be valid and enforceable.


Living Benefit

Some insurance companies include this benefit option at no cost to their policy holders. The insurer considers on a case to case basis, the need for insurance funds before death. If the insured can demonstrate a shortened life of less than two years and with some insurers one year, the insurer will consider releasing up to 50% or a maximum of $100,000 of the life insurance coverage held by the insured. Not all insurers offer this benefit for free. The need has resulted in specific stand alone living benefit/critical illness policies coming into existence. Look under "Different types of Life Insurance" for further information. You might have heard of "Viatical Settlements", the practice of seriously ill people selling the rights to their life insurance policies to third parties. This practice is common in the United States but has not caught on in Canada.


Long position

Outright ownership of a security or financial instrument. The
owner expects the price to rise in order to make a profit on some future sale.


Option

Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a
given date. Investors, not companies, issue options. Investors who purchase call options bet the stock will be
worth more than the price set by the option (the strike price), plus the price they paid for the option itself.
Buyers of put options bet the stock's price will go down below the price set by the option. An option is part of
a class of securities called derivatives, so named because these securities derive their value from the worth of
an underlying investment.


Option

A right to buy or sell specific securities or commodities at a stated
price (exercise or strike price) within a specified time. An option is a type of
derivative.


Option

right to buy or sell a specified property at a specified amount at some time in the future.


Option price

Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right
to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.


Option seller

Also called the option writer , the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in
the future.


Options contract

A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not
the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a
specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date).


Oversubscription privilege

In a rights issue, arrangement by which shareholders are given the right to apply
for any shares that are not taken up.


Poison pill

Anit-takeover device that gives a prospective acquiree's shareholders the right to buy shares of the
firm or shares of anyone who acquires the firm at a deep discount to their fair market value. Named after the
cyanide pill that secret agents are instructed to swallow if capture is imminent.


poison pill

Measure taken by a target firm to avoid acquisition;
for example, the right for existing shareholders to buy additional
shares at an attractive price if a bidder acquires a large holding.


Policyowner

The person who owns and holds all rights under the policy, including the power to name and change beneficiaries, make a policy loan, assign the policy to a financial institution as collateral for a loan, withdraw funds or surrender the policy.


Preference stock

A security that ranks junior to preferred stock but senior to common stock in the right to
receive payments from the firm; essentially junior preferred stock.


Preferred Beneficiary

Used in older contracts to confer the same rights as an irrevocable beneficiary. Applied to family members.


Preferred stock

A security that shows ownership in a corporation and gives the holder a claim, prior to the
claim of common stockholders, on earnings and also generally on assets in the event of liquidation. Most
preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that is paid prior to the common stock dividend, stated in a dollar
amount or as a percentage of par value. This stock does not usually carry voting rights. The stock shares
characteristics of both common stock and debt.


Preferred stock

A type of stock that usually pays a fixed dividend prior to any distributions
to the holders of common stock. In the event of liquidation, it must be paid
off before common stock. It can, but rarely does, have voting rights.


Preferred Stock Stock that has a claim on assets and dividends of a corporation that are prior

to that of common stock. Preferred stock typically does not carry the right to vote.


Proxy

Document intended to provide shareholders with information necessary to vote in an informed manner
on matters to be brought up at a stockholders' meeting. Includes information on closely held shares.
Shareholders can and often do give management their proxy, representing the right and responsibility to vote
their shares as specified in the proxy statement.


Proxy contest

A battle for the control of a firm in which the dissident group seeks, from the firm's other
shareholders, the right to vote those shareholder's shares in favor of the dissident group's slate of directors.
Also called proxy fight.


Put

An option granting the right to sell the underlying futures contract. Opposite of a call.


Put option

This security gives investors the right to sell (or put) fixed number of shares at a fixed price within
a given time frame. An investor, for example, might wish to have the right to sell shares of a stock at a certain
price by a certain time in order to protect, or hedge, an existing investment.


Put Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to sell an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date


put option

right to sell an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.


Put Option

Contract that grants the right to sell at a specified price at some time in the future.


Put provision

Gives the holder of a floating-rate bond the right to redeem his note at par on the coupon
payment date.


Put swaption

A financial tool in which the buyer has the right, or option, to enter into a swap as a floatingrate
payer. The writer of the swaption therefore becomes the floating-rate receiver/fixed-rate payer.


qualified investments (Canada)

Qualified investments is the term used for investments that can be held in an RSP. These investments generally include:
Canadian dollar savings accounts, guaranteed investment certificates, term deposits
shares of Canadian and foreign companies listed on a prescribed stock exchange
shares of some over-the-counter U.S. and Canadian companies
shares of some small businesses
certain types of bonds and money-market investments such as treasury bills, Canada Savings Bonds, Government of Canada bonds, provincial government bonds, Crown Corporation bonds, bonds issued by Canadian corporations listed on a prescribed stock exchange, and certain strip bonds
certain types of mortgages, including your own
certain covered call options, warrants and rights
certain mutual funds


Re-entry

This is a provision in some term insurance policies that allow the insured the right to renew the policy at a more favourable rate by providing updated evidence of insurability.


Reclamation

A claim for the right to return or the right to demand the return of a security that has been
previously accepted as a result of bad delivery or other irregularities in the delivery and settlement process.


Recourse

In the event a person defaults on a loan, recourse is the right of a person to receive payment. Recourse could give the lender the ability to take possession of the borrowers assets.


Registered Pension Plan

Commonly referred to as an RPP this is a tax sheltered employee group plan approved by Federal and Provincial governments allowing employees to have deductions made directly from their wages by their employer with a resulting reduction of income taxes at source. These plans are easy to implement but difficult to dissolve should the group have a change of heart. Employer contributions are usually a percentage of the employee's salary, typically from 3% to 5%, with a maximum of the lessor of 20% or $3,500 per annum. The employee has the same right of contribution. Vesting is generally set at 2 years, which means that the employee has right of ownership of both his/her and his/her employers contributions to the plan after 2 years. It also means that all contributions are locked in after 2 years and cannot be cashed in for use by the employee in a low income year. Should the employee change jobs, these funds can only be transferred to the RPP of a new employer or the funds can be transferred to an individual RRSP (or any number of RRSPs) but in either scenario, the funds are locked in and cannot be accessed until at least age 60. The only choices available to access locked in RPP funds after age 60 are the conversion to a Life Income Fund or a Unisex Annuity.
To further define an RPP, Registered Pension Plans take two forms; Defined Benefit or Defined Contribution (also known as money purchase plans). The Defined Benefit plan establishes the amount of money in advance that is to be paid out at retirement based usually on number of years of employee service and various formulae involving percentages of average employee earnings. The Defined Benefit plan is subject to constant government scrutiny to make certain that sufficient contributions are being made to provide for the predetermined pension payout. On the other hand, the Defined Contribution plan is considerably easier to manage. The employer simply determines the percentage to be contributed within the prescribed limits. Whatever amount has grown in the employee's reserve by retirement determines how much the pension payout will be by virtue of the amount of LIF or Annuity payout it will purchase.
The most simple group RRSP plan is a group billed RRSP. This means that each employee has his own RRSP plan and the employer deducts the contributions directly from the employee's wages and sends them directly to the RRSP plan administrator. Regular RRSP rules apply in that maximum contribution in the current year is the lessor of 18% or $13,500. Generally, to encourage this kind of plan, the employer also agrees to make a regular contribution to the employee's plans, knowing full well that any contributions made immediately belong to the employee. Should the employee change jobs, he/she can take their plan with them and continue making contributions or cash it in and pay tax in the year in which the money is taken into income.


SDR

Special drawing right, the name given to the "currency" of the IMF.


Seasoned new issue

A new issue of stock after the company's securities have previously been issued. A
seasoned new issue of common stock can be made by using a cash offer or a rights offer.


Series

Options: All option contracts of the same class that also have the same unit of trade, expiration date,
and exercise price. Stocks: shares which have common characteristics, such as rights to ownership and voting,
dividends, par value, etc. In the case of many foreign shares, one series may be owned only by citizens of the
country in which the stock is registered.


Standby agreement

In a rights issue, agreement that the underwriter will purchase any stock not purchased by investors.


Standby fee

Amount paid to an underwriter who agrees to purchase any stock that is not subscribed to the
public investor in a rights offering.


stock option

a right allowing the holder to purchase shares of common stock during some future time frame and at a specified price


Stock option

A right to purchase a specific maximum number of shares at a specific
price no later than a specific date. It is a commonly used form of incentive compensation.


Subrogation

Conditional payments may be made by an insurance company to a disability insurance claimant who has a loss of income claim against a third party who caused or contributed to their disability, however, the insurance company has a right to seek reimbursement of any payments they made to the claimant either from the third party or from any judgement or settlement received by the claimant from the third party.


Subscription price

Price that the existing shareholders are allowed to pay for a share of stock in a rights offering.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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