|Research and Development Incentives|
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Definition of Research and Development Incentives
Research and Development Incentives
Government programs to promote research and development.
A development strategy followed by many Latin American
International Bank for Reconstruction and development makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high
Unfinished research and development that is acquired from another firm.
A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
A form of organization commonly used by foreign banks to enter the U.S. market. An agency
A firm's investing in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected.
Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
Notes issued by states and municipalities to obtain interim financing for
The time that elapses between when a check is deposited into a bank account and when the funds are available to the depositor, during which period the bank is collecting payment from the payer's bank.
A convention used for quoting bids and offers for treasury bills in terms of annualized
A draft addressed to a bank.
Line of credit granted by a bank to a customer.
A computer message system linking major banks. It is used not for effecting payments, but as a
A short-term credit investment created by a non-financial firm and guaranteed by a
An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
State of being unable to pay debts. Thus, the ownership of the firm's assets is transferred from
Bankruptcy cost view
The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.
The argument that expected bankruptcy costs preclude firms from being financed entirely
A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)
An international wire transfer system for high-value
A strategy in which a put and with the same strike price and expiration are either both
A merchant banking subsidiary set up by several banks that may or may not be of the
Covered call writing strategy
A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
Refers to multi-period cash flow matching.
Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)
A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
Eligible bankers' acceptances
In the BA market, an acceptance may be referred to as eligible because it is
A bank that regularly accepts foreign currency denominated deposits and makes foreign currency loans.
Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank)
The U.S. federal government agency that extends trade credits to U.S.
Federal Financing Bank
A federal institution that lends to a wide array of federal credit agencies funds it
Federal Home Loan Banks
The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The
Foreign banking market
That portion of domestic bank loans supplied to foreigners for use abroad.
A bond portfolio strategy whose goal is to eliminate the portfolio's risk against a
International Banking Facility (IBF)
international banking Facility. A branch that an American bank
A collective term that refers to global bonds, Eurobonds, and foreign bonds.
International Depository Receipt (IDR)
A receipt issued by a bank as evidence of ownership of one or more
The attempt to reduce risk by investing in the more than one nation. By
International finance subsidiary
A subsidiary incorporated in the U.S., usually in Delaware, whose sole
International Fisher effect
States that the interest rate differential between two countries should be an
A mutual fund that can invest only outside the United States.
Related: See external market.
International Monetary Fund
An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
International Monetary Market (IMM)
A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
Financial intermediaries who perform a variety of services, including aiding in the sale of
A bond portfolio strategy in which the portfolio is constructed to have approximately equal
A legal proceeding for liquidating or reorganizing a business.
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)
London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.
A British term for a bank that specializes not in lending out its own funds, but in providing
Money center banks
banks that raise most of their funds from the domestic and international money markets, relying less on depositors for funds.
A strategy of using futures for asset allocation by pension sponsors to avoid disrupting the
Passive portfolio strategy
A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on
Passive investment strategy
See: passive management.
PIBOR (Paris Interbank Offer Rate)
The deposit rate on interbank transactions in the Eurocurrency market
A bankruptcy in which a debtor and its creditors pre-negotiate a plan or
Protective put buying strategy
A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is
A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a random element that is
SIMEX (Singapore International Monetary Exchange)
A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT)
A dedicated computer network to support funds transfer messages internationally between over 900 member banks worldwide.
A strategy that involves a position in one or more options so that the cost of buying an
Stock replacement strategy
A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, employed when the futures
Structured portfolio strategy
A strategy in which a portfolio is designed to achieve the performance of some
A swap in which a money manager exchanges one bond for another bond that is similar in
Wholesale mortgage banking
The purchasing of loans originated by others, with the servicing rights
A multilateral development finance agency created by the 1944 Bretton Woods, New
wealth The part of world wealth that is traded and is therefore accessible to investors.
Money in a bank cheque account, the difference between receipts and payments.
Money owed to the bank in a cheque account where payments exceed receipts.
The process of taking the balances from the bank statement and the general ledger and making adjustments so that they agree.
a foundation for the compensation plan that addresses the role compensation should play in the organization
an organizational strategy in which company management decides to confront, rather than avoid, competition; an organizational strategy in which company management still attempts to differentiate company
cost leadership strategy
a plan to achieve the position in a
a technique for avoiding competition by distinguishing a product or service from that of competitors through adding sufficient value (including quality and/or features) that customers are willing to pay
the link between an organization’s goals and objectives
World Trade Organization (WTO)
the arbiter of global trade that was created in 1995 under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; each signatory country has one
A comparison between the cash position recorded on a company’s
The reorganization or liquidation of a firm that cannot pay its debts.
System whereby customers make payments to a regional collection center which transfers funds to
international Fisher effect
Theory that real interest rates in all countries should be equal, with differences in nominal rates reflecting differences in expected inflation.
A public agency responsible for regulating and controlling an economy's monetary and financial institutions. It is the sole money-issuing authority.
A privately owned, profit-seeking firm that accepts deposits and makes loans.
Federal Reserve Banks
The twelve district banks in the Federal Reserve System.
Fractional Reserve Banking
A banking system in which banks hold only a fraction of their outstanding deposits in cash or on deposit with the central bank.
Foreign-produced good or service bought by us.
Restriction on the quantity of a foreign good that can be imported.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Organization originally established to manage the postwar fixed exchange rate system.
See foreign exchange reserves.
Middleman between a corporation issuing new securities and the public. The middleman buys the securities issue outright and then resells it to customers. Also called an underwriter.
Marginal Propensity to Import
Fraction of an increase in disposable income that is spent on imports.
The international bank for reconstruction and Development, an international organization that provides long-term loans to developing countries to improve their infrastructure.
A bill of exchange, or draft, drawn by the borrower for payment on a specified date, and accepted by a chartered bank. Upon acceptance, the bill becomes, in effect, a postdated certified cheque.
A financial institution that engages in investment banking functions, such as advising clients in mergers and acquisitions, underwriting securities and taking debt or equity positions.
ABM (automated banking machine)
A bank machine, sometimes referred to as an automated teller machine (ATM).
A guaranteed form of payment which is issued in amounts over $5,000.
A mutual fund that can invest in securities issued anywhere outside of Canada.
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