Financial Terms
Reporting period

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Definition of Reporting period

Reporting Period Image 1

Reporting period

The time period for which transactions are compiled into a set of financial statements.

Related Terms:

Payout ratio

Generally, the proportion of earnings paid out to the common stockholders as cash dividends.
More specifically, the firm's cash dividend divided by the firm's earnings in the same reporting period.

Statement of retained earnings

An adjunct to the balance sheet, providing more detailed information about the beginning balance, changes, and ending balance in
the retained earnings account during the reporting period.

Form 940-EZ

A shortened version of the Form 940.
Form 941
A form used to identify to the government the amount of all quarterly
wages on which taxes were withheld, the amount of taxes withheld, and any adjustments
to withheld taxes from previous reporting periods.

Replacement Capital Expenditures

Capital expenditures required to replace productive
capacity consumed during a reporting period.

PPF (periodic perpetuity factor)

a generalization formula invented by Abrams that is the present value of regular but noncontiguous cash flows that have constant growth to perpetuity.

Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.

Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).

Reporting Period Image 2

Compounding period

The length of the time period (for example, a quarter in the case of quarterly
compounding) that elapses before interest compounds.

Credit period

The length of time for which the customer is granted credit.

Discount period

The period during which a customer can deduct the discount from the net amount of the bill
when making payment.

Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.

Evaluation period

The time interval over which a money manager's performance is evaluated.

Holding period

Length of time that an individual holds a security.

Holding period return

The rate of return over a given period.

Multiperiod immunization

A portfolio strategy in which a portfolio is created that will be capable of
satisfying more than one predetermined future liability regardless if interest rates change.

Net period

The period of time between the end of the discount period and the date payment is due.

Reporting Period Image 3

Neutral period

In the Euromarket, a period over which Eurodollars are sold is said to be neutral if it does not
start or end on either a Friday or the day before a holiday.

Reporting currency

The currency in which the parent firm prepares its own financial statements; that is, U.S.
dollars for a U.S. company.

Subperiod return

The return of a portfolio over a shorter period of time than the evaluation period.

T-period holding-period return

The percentage return over the T-year period an investment lasts.

Waiting period

Time during which the SEC studies a firm's registration statement. During this time the firm
may distribute a preliminary prospectus.

Workout period

Realignment period of a temporary misaligned yield relationship that sometimes occurs in
fixed income markets.

Accounting period

The period of time for which financial statements are produced – see also financial year.

Period costs

The costs that relate to a period of time.

Periodic inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the Inventory account is adjusted for the units sold only at the end of the period.

Average Collection Period

Average number of days necessary to receive cash for the sale of
a company's products. It is calculated by dividing the value of the
accounts receivable by the average daily sales for the period.

Payback Period

The number of years necessary for the net cash flows of an
investment to equal the initial cash outlay

Reporting Period Image 4

compounding period

the time between each interest computation

payback period

the time it takes an investor to recoup an
original investment through cash flows from a project

period cost

cost other than one associated with making or acquiring inventory

periodic compensation

a pay plan based on the time spent on the task rather than the work accomplished

Odd first or last period

Fixed-income securities may be purchased on dates
that do not coincide with coupon or payment dates. The length of the first and
last periods may differ from the regular period between coupons, and thus the
bond owner is not entitled to the full value of the coupon for that period.
Instead, the coupon is pro-rated according to how long the bond is held during
that period.

Segment reporting

A portion of the financial statements that breaks out the results of
specific business units.

payback period

Time until cash flows recover the initial investment of the project.

Average Amortization Period

The average useful life of a company's collective amortizable asset base.

Change in Reporting Entity

A change in the scope of the entities included in a set of, typically, consolidated financial statements.

Extended Amortization Period

An amortization period that continues beyond a long-lived asset's economic useful life.

Extended Amortization Periods

Amortizing capitalized expenditures over estimated useful lives that are unduly optimistic.

Fraudulent Financial Reporting

Intentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures
in financial statements done to deceive financial statement users. The term is used interchangeably
with accounting irregularities. A technical difference exists in that with fraud, it
must be shown that a reader of financial statements that contain intentional and material misstatements
must have used those financial statements to his or her detriment. In this book, accounting
practices are not alleged to be fraudulent until done so by an administrative, civil, or
criminal proceeding, such as that of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a court.

Periodic inventory

A physical inventory count taken on a repetitive basis.

Grace Period

A specific period of time after a premium payment is due during which the policy owner may make a payment, and during which, the protection of the policy continues. The grace period usually ends in 30 days.

Critical Growth Periods

Times in a company's history when growth is essential and without which survival of the business might be in jeopardy.

Full Credit Period

The period of trade credit given by a supplier to its customer.

Grace Period

Length of time during which repayments of loan principal are excused. Usually occurs at the start of the loan period.

Annuity Period

The time between each payment under an annuity.

Waiting Period (Credit Insurance)

A specific time that must pass following the onset of a covered disability before any benefits will be paid under a creditor disability policy. (Also known as an elimination period).

accrual-basis accounting

Well, frankly, accrual is not a good descriptive
term. Perhaps the best way to begin is to mention that accrual-basis
accounting is much more than cash-basis accounting. Recording only the
cash receipts and cash disbursement of a business would be grossly
inadequate. A business has many assets other than cash, as well as
many liabilities, that must be recorded. Measuring profit for a period as
the difference between cash inflows from sales and cash outflows for
expenses would be wrong, and in fact is not allowed for most businesses
by the income tax law. For management, income tax, and financial
reporting purposes, a business needs a comprehensive record-keeping
system—one that recognizes, records, and reports all the assets and liabilities
of a business. This all-inclusive scope of financial record keeping
is referred to as accrual-basis accounting. Accrual-basis accounting
records sales revenue when sales are made (though cash is received
before or after the sales) and records expenses when costs are incurred
(though cash is paid before or after expenses are recorded). Established
financial reporting standards require that profit for a period
must be recorded using accrual-basis accounting methods. Also, these
authoritative standards require that in reporting its financial condition a
business must use accrual-basis accounting.

financial reports and statements

Financial means having to do with
money and economic wealth. Statement means a formal presentation.
Financial reports are printed and a copy is sent to each owner and each
major lender of the business. Most public corporations make their financial
reports available on a web site, so all or part of the financial report
can be downloaded by anyone. Businesses prepare three primary financial
statements: the statement of financial condition, or balance sheet;
the statement of cash flows; and the income statement. These three key
financial statements constitute the core of the periodic financial reports
that are distributed outside a business to its shareowners and lenders.
Financial reports also include footnotes to the financial statements and
much other information. Financial statements are prepared according to
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which are the authoritative
rules that govern the measurement of net income and the reporting
of profit-making activities, financial condition, and cash flows.
Internal financial statements, although based on the same profit
accounting methods, report more information to managers for decision
making and control. Sometimes, financial statements are called simply

variable costing

a cost accumulation and reporting method
that includes only variable production costs (direct material,
direct labor, and variable overhead) as inventoriable
or product costs; it treats fixed overhead as a period cost;
is not acceptable for external reporting and tax returns







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