A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting quantity rather than price. Contrast with price adjuster.

# Related Terms:

A firm that reacts to excess supply or excess demand by adjusting price rather than quantity. Contrast with quantity adjuster.

## Economic order quantity (EOQ)

The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.

## economic order quantity (EOQ)

an estimate of the number
of units per order that will be the least costly and provide
the optimal balance between the costs of ordering
and the costs of carrying inventory

## material quantity variance

(actual quantity X standard price) - (standard quantity allowed  standard price);
the standard cost saved (favorable) or expended (unfavorable)
due to the difference between the actual quantity
of material used and the standard quantity of material
allowed for the goods produced during the period

## standard quantity allowed

the quantity of input (in hours or some other cost driver measurement) required at standard for the output actually achieved for the period

## Materials quantity variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted quantities
of material used in the production process, multiplied by the standard cost per
unit.

## economic order quantity

Order size that minimizes total inventory costs.

## Quantity Theory of Money

Theory that velocity is constant, and so a change in money supply will change nominal income by the same percentage. Formalized by the equation Mv = PQ.

## economic components model

Abramsâ€™ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.

## Arm's length price

The price at which a willing buyer and a willing unrelated seller would freely agree to
transact.

A dealer's price to sell a security; also called the offer price.

## Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.

## Basis price

price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.

## Bid price

This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically
speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask , offer.

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.

## Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.

## Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.

## Clean price

Bond price excluding accrued interest.

## Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.

## Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price

## Convertible price

The contractually specified price per share at which a convertible security can be
converted into shares of common stock.

## Cross-border risk

Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.

## Day order

An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.

## Delivery price

The price fixed by the Clearing house at which deliveries on futures are in invoiced; also the
price at which the futures contract is settled when deliveries are made.

## Dirty price

Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer.

## Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.

## Economic assumptions

economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
financial plan.

## Economic defeasance

See: in-substance defeasance.

## Economic dependence

Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.

## Economic earnings

The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in
the firm's productive capacity.

## Economic exposure

The extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change.

## Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.

## Economic rents

Profits in excess of the competitive level.

## Economic risk

In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements.

## Economic surplus

For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market
value of its liabilities.

## Economic union

An agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital,
labor, all goods and services, and involves the harmonization and unification of social, fiscal, and monetary
policies.

## Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.

## Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.

## Exercise price

The price at which the underlying future or options contract may be bought or sold.

## Fair market price

Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, both having
knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price.

## Fair price

The equilibrium price for futures contracts. Also called the theoretical futures price, which equals
the spot price continuously compounded at the cost of carry rate for some time interval.

## Fair price provision

See:appraisal rights.

## Fill or kill order

A trading order that is canceled unless executed within a designated time period.
Related: open order.

## Fixed price basis

An offering of securities at a fixed price.

## Fixed-price tender offer

A one-time offer to purchase a stated number of shares at a stated fixed price,
usually a premium to the current market price.

## Flat price risk

Taking a position either long or short that does not involve spreading.

## Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.

## Full price

Also called dirty price, the price of a bond including accrued interest. Related: flat price.

## Futures price

The price at which the parties to a futures contract agree to transact on the settlement date.

## High price

The highest (intraday) price of a stock over the past 52 weeks, adjusted for any stock splits.

## Invoice price

The price that the buyer of a futures contract must pay the seller when a Treasury Bond is delivered.

## Law of one price

An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price regardless of the
means by which one goes about creating that security. This implies that if the payoff of a security can be
synthetically created by a package of other securities, the price of the package and the price of the security
whose payoff it replicates must be equal.

economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.

## Limit order

An order to buy a stock at or below a specified price or to sell a stock at or above a specified
price. For instance, you could tell a broker "Buy me 100 shares of XYZ Corp at \$8 or less" or to "sell 100
shares of XYZ at \$10 or better." The customer specifies a price and the order can be executed only if the
market reaches or betters that price. A conditional trading order designed to avoid the danger of adverse
unexpected price changes.

## Limit order book

A record of unexecuted limit orders that is maintained by the specialist. These orders are
treated equally with other orders in terms of priority of execution.

## Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation
Limitation on asset dispositions A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major
assets.

## Low price

This is the day's lowest price of a security that has changed hands between a buyer and a seller.

## Low price-earnings ratio effect

The tendency of portfolios of stocks with a low price-earnings ratio to
outperform portfolios consisting of stocks with a high price-earnings ratio.

## Limit price

Maximum price fluctuation

## Market conversion price

Also called conversion parity price, the price that an investor effectively pays for
common stock by purchasing a convertible security and then exercising the conversion option. This price is
equal to the market price of the convertible security divided by the conversion ratio.

## Market order

This is an order to immediately buy or sell a security at the current trading price.

## Market price of risk

A measure of the extra return, or risk premium, that investors demand to bear risk. The
reward-to-risk ratio of the market portfolio.

## Market prices

The amount of money that a willing buyer pays to acquire something from a willing seller,
when a buyer and seller are independent and when such an exchange is motivated by only commercial
consideration.

## Marketplace price efficiency

The degree to which the prices of assets reflect the available marketplace
information. Marketplace price efficiency is sometimes estimated as the difficulty faced by active
management of earning a greater return than passive management would, after adjusting for the risk
associated with a strategy and the transactions costs associated with implementing a strategy.

## Maximum price fluctuation

The maximum amount the contract price can change, up or down, during one
trading session, as fixed by exchange rules in the contract specification. Related: limit price.

## Minimum price fluctuation

Smallest increment of price movement possible in trading a given contract. Also
called point or tick. The zero-beta portfolio with the least risk.

## Negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW)

Demand deposits that pay interest.

## Nominal price

price quotations on futures for a period in which no actual trading took place.

## Open (good-til-cancelled) order

An individual investor can place an order to buy or sell a security. That
open order stays active until it is completed or the investor cancels it.

## Opening price

The range of prices at which the first bids and offers were made or first transactions were
completed.

## Option price

Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right
to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.

## Pecking-order view (of capital structure)

The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
preferred source.

## Price/book ratio

Compares a stock's market value to the value of total assets less total liabilities (book
value). Determined by dividing current stock price by common stockholder equity per share (book value),
adjusted for stock splits. Also called Market-to-Book.

## Price/earnings ratio (PE ratio)

Shows the "multiple" of earnings at which a stock sells. Determined by dividing current
stock price by current earnings per share (adjusted for stock splits). Earnings per share for the P/E ratio is
determined by dividing earnings for past 12 months by the number of common shares outstanding. Higher
"multiple" means investors have higher expectations for future growth, and have bid up the stock's price.

## Price/sales ratio (PS Ratio)

Determined by dividing current stock price by revenue per share (adjusted for stock splits).
Revenue per share for the P/S ratio is determined by dividing revenue for past 12 months by number of shares
outstanding.

## Price compression

The limitation of the price appreciation potential for a callable bond in a declining interest
rate environment, based on the expectation that the bond will be redeemed at the call price.

## Price discovery process

The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the

## Price elasticities

The percentage change in the quantity divided by the percentage change in the price.

## Price impact costs

Related: market impact costs

## Price momentum

Related: Relative strength

## Price persistence

Related: Relative strength

## Price risk

The risk that the value of a security (or a portfolio) will decline in the future. Or, a type of
mortgage-pipeline risk created in the production segment when loan terms are set for the borrower in advance
of terms being set for secondary market sale. If the general level of rates rises during the production cycle, the
lender may have to sell his originated loans at a discount.

## Price takers

Individuals who respond to rates and prices by acting as though they have no influence on them.

## Priced out

The market has already incorporated information, such as a low dividend, into the price of a stock.

## Price value of a basis point (PVBP)

Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in
the price of the bond if the required yield changes by one basis point.

## Prices

price of a share of common stock on the date shown. Highs and lows are based on the highest and

## Price-specie-flow mechanism

Adjustment mechanism under the classical gold standard whereby
disturbances in the price level in one country would be wholly or partly offset by a countervailing flow of
specie (gold coins) that would act to equalize prices across countries and automatically bring international
payments back in balance.

## Price-volume relationship

A relationship espoused by some technical analysts that signals continuing rises
and falls in security prices based on accompanying changes in volume traded.

## Put price

The price at which the asset will be sold if a put option is exercised. Also called the strike or
exercise price of a put option.

## Reverse price risk

A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender commits to sell loans to an
investor at rates prevailing at application but sets the note rates when the borrowers close. The lender is thus
exposed to the risk of falling rates.

## Sell limit order

Conditional trading order that indicates that a, security may be sold at the designated price or

## Settlement price

A figure determined by the closing range which is used to calculate gains and losses in
futures market accounts. Settlement prices are used to determine gains, losses, margin calls, and invoice
prices for deliveries. Related: closing range.

## Spot price

The current marketprice of the actual physical commodity. Also called cash price.

## Stated conversion price

At the time of issuance of a convertible security, the price the issuer effectively
grants the security holder to purchase the common stock, equal to the par value of the convertible security
divided by the conversion ratio.

## Stop-loss order

An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.

## Stop order (or stop)

An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a
buy) or below (on a sell) the price that prevailed when the order was given.

## Stop-limit order

A stop order that designates a price limit. In contrast to the stop order, which becomes a
market order once the stop is reached, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order once the stop is reached.

## Strike price

The stated price per share for which underlying stock may be purchased (in the case of a call) or
sold (in the case of a put) by the option holder upon exercise of the option contract.

## Subscription price

price that the existing shareholders are allowed to pay for a share of stock in a rights offering.

## Theoretical futures price

Also called the fair price, the equilibrium futures price.

## Transfer price

The price at which one unit of a firm sells goods or services to another unit of the same firm.

## Variable price security

A security, such as stocks or bonds, that sells at a fluctuating, market-determined price.

## SPECIFIC INVOICE PRICES

An inventory valuation method in which a company values the items in its ending inventory based
on the specific invoices on which they were bought.

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.

## Optimum selling price

The price at which profit is maximized, which takes into account the cost behaviour of fixed and variable costs and the relationship between price and demand for a product/service.

## Transfer price

The price at which goods or services are bought and sold within divisions of the same organization, as opposed to an armâ€™s-length price at which sales may be made to an external customer.