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Operating cycle

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Definition of Operating cycle

Operating Cycle Image 1

Operating cycle

The average time intervening between the acquisition of materials or services and the final
cash realization from those acquisitions.



Related Terms:

Cash cycle

In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital
management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.


Annual fund operating expenses

For investment companies, the management fee and "other expenses,"
including the expenses for maintaining shareholder records, providing shareholders with financial statements,
and providing custodial and accounting services. For 12b-1 funds, selling and marketing costs are included.


Budget cycle

The annual period over which budgets are prepared.


Business cycle

Repetitive cycles of economic expansion and recession.


Business Cycle

Fluctuations of GDP around its long-run trend, consisting of recession, trough, expansion, and peak.



Cash conversion cycle

The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash
from accounts receivable.


cash conversion cycle

Period between firm’s payment for materials
and collection on its sales.


Operating Cycle Image 2

Cash Cycle

The length of time between a purchase of materials and collection of accounts receivable generated by the sale of the products made from the materials.


cash flow from operating activities, or cash flow from profit

This equals the cash inflow from sales during the period minus the cash
outflow for expenses during the period. Keep in mind that to measure
net income, generally accepted accounting principles require the use of
accrual-basis accounting. Starting with the amount of accrual-basis net
income, adjustments are made for changes in accounts receivable,
inventories, prepaid expenses, and operating liabilities—and depreciation
expense is added back (as well as any other noncash outlay
expense)—to arrive at cash flow from profit, which is formally labeled
cash flow from operating activities in the externally reported statement
of cash flows.


Cash Flow Provided by Operating Activities

With some exceptions, the cash effects of transactions
that enter into the determination of net income, such as cash receipts from sales of goods
and services and cash payments to suppliers and employees for acquisitions of inventory and
expenses.


Cycle counting

The frequent, scheduled counting of a subset of all inventories,
with the intent of spotting inventory record inaccuracies, investigating root
causes, and correcting those problems.


cycle time

the time between the placement of an order to
the time the goods arrive for usage or are produced by
the company; it is equal to value-added time plus nonvalue-
added time


degree of operating leverage

a factor that indicates how a percentage change in sales, from the existing or current
level, will affect company profits; it is calculated as contribution
margin divided by net income; it is equal to (1 - margin of safety percentage)


degree of operating leverage (DOL)

Percentage change in profits given a 1 percent change in sales.


Expiration cycle

An expiration cycle relates to the dates on which options on a particular security expire. A
given option will be placed in 1 of 3 cycles, the January cycle, the February cycle, or the March cycle. At any
point in time, an option will have contracts with 4 expiration dates outstanding, 2 in near-term months and 2
in far-term months.


life cycle costing

the accumulation of costs for activities that
occur over the entire life cycle of a product from inception
to abandonment by the manufacturer and consumer


Operating Cycle Image 3

Lifecycle costing

An approach to costing that estimates and accumulates the costs of a product/service over
its entire lifecycle, i.e. from inception to abandonment.


manufacturing cycle efficiency (MCE)

a ratio resulting from dividing the actual production time by total lead time;
reflects the proportion of lead time that is value-added



Market cycle

The period between the 2 latest highs or lows of the S&P 500, showing net performance of a
fund through both an up and a down market. A market cycle is complete when the S&P is 15% below the
highest point or 15% above the lowest point (ending a down market). The dates of the last market cycle are:
12/04/87 to 10/11/90 (low to low).


Net operating losses

Losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.


Net operating margin

The ratio of net operating income to net sales.


operating activities

Includes all the sales and expense activities of a business.
But the term is very broad and inclusive; it is used to embrace all
types of activities engaged in by profit-motivated entities toward the
objective of earning profit. A bank, for instance, earns net income not
from sales revenue but from loaning money on which it receives interest
income. Making loans is the main revenue operating activity of banks.


operating budget

a budget expressed in both units and dollars


Operating cash flow

Earnings before depreciation minus taxes. It measures the cash generated from
operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements.


operating cash flow

See cash flow from operating activities.


Operating Cash Flow

Income available after the payment of taxes, plus the value of the
non-cash expenses


Operating Earnings

A term frequently used to describe earnings after the removal of the
effects of nonrecurring or nonoperating items.


Operating expense

Any expense associated with the general, sales, and administrative
functions of a business.



OPERATING EXPENSES

The total amount that was spent to run a company this year.


Operating Expenses

The amount of money the company must spend on overhead, distribution, taxes, underwriting the risk and servicing the policy. It is a factor in calculating premium rates.


Operating exposure

Degree to which exchange rate changes, in combination with price changes, will alter a
company's future operating cash flows.


Operating income

The net income of a business, less the impact of any financial activity,
such as interest expense or investment income, as well as taxes and extraordinary
items.


Operating Income

A measure of results produced by the core operations of a firm. It is common
for both recurring and nonrecurring items that are associated with operations to be included
in this measure. operating income is typically found in multistep income statements and is a pretax
measure.


Operating lease

Short-term, cancelable lease. A type of lease in which the period of contract is less than the
life of the equipment and the lessor pays all maintenance and servicing costs.


Operating lease

The rental of an asset from a lessor, but not under terms that would
qualify it as a capital lease.


Operating Lease

One where the risks and benefits, as well as ownership, stays with the lessor.


Operating leverage

Fixed operating costs, so-called because they accentuate variations in profits.


operating leverage

A relatively small percent increase or decrease in
sales volume that causes a much larger percent increase or decrease in
profit because fixed expenses do not change with small changes in sales
volume. Sales volume changes have a lever effect on profit. This effect
should be called sales volume leverage, but in practice it is called operating
leverage.
operating liabilities
The short-term liabilities generated by the operating
(profit-making) activities of a business. Most businesses have three types
of operating liabilities: accounts payable from inventory purchases and
from incurring expenses, accrued expenses payable for unpaid expenses,
and income tax payable. These short-term liabilities of a business are
non-interest-bearing, although if not paid on time a business may be
assessed a late-payment penalty that is in the nature of an interest
charge.


operating leverage

the proportionate relationship between
a company’s variable and fixed costs


operating leverage

Degree to which costs are fixed.


Operating Line of Credit

A bank's commitment to make loans to a particular borrower up to a specified maximum for a specified period, usually one year.


Operating Loan

A loan advanced under an operating line of credit.


Operating profit

The profit made by the business for an accounting period, equal to gross profit less selling, finance, administration etc. expenses, but before deducting interest or taxation.


operating profit

See earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT).


Operating profit margin

The ratio of operating margin to net sales.


Operating risk

The inherent or fundamental risk of a firm, without regard to financial risk. The risk that is
created by operating leverage. Also called business risk.


operating risk (business risk)

Risk in firm’s operating income.


Payroll Cycle

The period of service for which a company compensates its employees.


Political Business Cycle

A business cycle caused by policies undertaken to help a government be re-elected.


Product cycle

The time it takes to bring new and/or improved products to market.


product life cycle

a model depicting the stages through
which a product class (not necessarily each product) passes


Real Business Cycle Theory

Belief that business cycles arise from real shocks to the economy, such as technology advances and natural resource discoveries, and have little to do with monetary policy.


Replacement cycle

The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset.


Short-run operating activities

Events and decisions concerning the short-term finance of a firm, such as
how much inventory to order and whether to offer cash terms or credit terms to customers.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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