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Definition of NM

NM Image 1

NM

Abbreviation for Not Meaningful.



Related Terms:

Abandonment option

The option of terminating an investment earlier than originally planned.


Assignment

The receipt of an exercise notice by an options writer that requires the writer to sell (in the case
of a call) or purchase (in the case of a put) the underlying security at the specified strike price.


Assignment

This is the legal transfer on one person's interest in an insurance policy to another person or entity, such as to a bank to qualify for a loan


Consignment

A shipment of goods to a party who agrees to try to sell them to third parties. A
sale is not considered to have taken place until the goods are sold to a third party.


cost containment

the practice of minimizing, to the extent
possible, period-by-period increases in per-unit variable
and total fixed costs



environmental constraint

any limitation on strategy options
caused by external cultural, fiscal, legal/regulatory,
or political situations; a limiting factor that is not under the
direct control of an organization’s management; tend to be
fairly long-run in nature


GNMA-I

Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) on which registered holders receive separate principal and
interest payments on each of their certificates, usually directly from the servicer of the MBS pool. GnmA-I
mortgage-backed securities are single-issuer pools.


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GNMA-II

Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) on which registered holders receive an aggregate principal and
interest payment from a central paying agent on all of their certificates. Principal and interest payments are
disbursed on the 20th day of the month. GnmA-II MBS are backed by multiple-issuer pools or custom pools
(one issuer but different interest rates that may vary within one percentage point). Multiple-issuer pools are
known as "Jumbos." Jumbo pools are generally longer and offer certain mortgages that are more
geographically diverse than single-issuer pools. Jumbo pool mortgage interest rates may vary within one
percentage point.


GNMA Midget

A GnmA pass-through certificate backed by fixed rate mortgages with a 15 year maturity.
GnmA Midget is a dealer term and is not used by GnmA in the formal description of its programs.


Government bond

See: Government securities.


Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.


Government securities

Negotiable U.S. Treasury securities.


Government sponsored enterprises

Privately owned, publicly chartered entities, such as the Student Loan
Marketing Association, created by Congress to reduce the cost of capital for certain borrowing sectors of the
economy including farmers, homeowners, and students.


Greenmail

Situation in which a large block of stock is held by an unfriendly company, forcing the target
company to repurchase the stock at a substantial premium to prevent a takeover.


Nonmarketable Security

A debt or equity security for which there is no posted price or bidand-
ask quotation available on a securities exchange or over-the-counter market.


Nonmarketed claims

Claims that cannot be easily bought and sold in the financial markets, such as those of
the government and litigants in lawsuits.


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Swap assignment

Related: swap sale.


Unmatched book

If the average maturity of a bank's liabilities is less than that of its assets, it is said to be
running an unmatched book. The term is commonly used with the Euromarket. Term also refers to the
condition when a firm enters into OTC derivatives contracts and chooses to hedge that risk by not making
trades in the opposite direction to another financial intermediary. In this case, the firm with an unmatched
book hedges its net market risk with futures and options, usually.
Related expressions: open book and short book.



Agency cost view

The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in
which total agency costs are at a minimum with some, but less than 100%, debt financing.


Agency pass-throughs

Mortgage pass-through securities whose principal and interest payments are
guaranteed by government agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae"), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac") and Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae").


allocation

the systematic assignment of an amount to a recipient
set of categories annuity a series of equal cash flows (either positive or negative) per period


Assuris

Assuris is a not for profit organization that protects Canadian policyholders in the event that their life insurance company should become insolvent. Their role is to protect policyholders by minimizing loss of benefits and ensuring a quick transfer of their policies to a solvent company where their benefits will continue to be honoured. Assuris is funded by the life insurance industry and endorsed by government. If you are a Canadian citizen or resident, and you purchased a product from a member life insurance company in Canada, you are protected by Assuris.
All life insurance companies authorized to sell in Canada are required, by the federal, provincial and territorial regulators, to become members of Assuris. Members cannot terminate their membership as long as they are licensed to write business in Canada or have any in force business in Canada.
If your life insurance company fails, your policies will be transferred to a solvent company. Assuris guarantees that you will retain at least 85% of the insurance benefits you were promised. Insurance benefits include Death, Health Expense, Monthly Income and Cash Value. Your deposit type products will also be transferred to a solvent company. For these products, Assuris guarantees that you will retain 100% of your Accumulated Value up to $100,000. Deposit type products include accumulation annuities, universal life overflow accounts, premium deposit accounts and dividend deposit accounts. The key to Assuris protection is that it is applied to all benefits of a similar type. If you have more than one policy with the failed company, you will need to add together all similar benefits before applying the Assuris protection. The Assuris website can be found at www.assuris.ca.


backflush costing

a streamlined cost accounting method that speeds up, simplifies, and reduces accounting effort in an environment that minimizes inventory balances, requires
few allocations, uses standard costs, and has minimal variances
from standard


Balanced-Budget Multiplier

The multiplier associated with a change in government spending financed by an equal change in taxes.


Blue Ribbon Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees

A committee formed in response to SEC chairman Arthur Levitt's initiative to improve the financial
reporting environment in the United States. In a report dated February 1999, the committee
made recommendations for new rules for regulation of financial reporting in the United States that
either duplicated or carried forward the recommendations of the Treadway Commission.


Bond

Bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The U.S. government, local
governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor
buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the
loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.


bond

A debt security issued by a government or company. You receive regular interest payments at specified rates while you hold the bond and you receive the face value when it matures. Short-term bonds mature in less than five years; medium-term bonds mature in six to ten years; and long-term bonds mature in eleven years or greater.


Bond

Fixed interest security issued by a corporation or government, having a specific maturity date.



BONDPAR

A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed-income portfolio , as well as the
individual securities held in the portfolio. BONDPAR decomposes the return into those elements beyond the
manager's control--such as the interest rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and
those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations,
and individual bond selection.


Budget deficit

The amount by which government spending exceeds government revenues.


Budget Deficit

The excess of government spending over tax receipts.


Canada Savings Bonds

A bond issued each year by the federal government. These bonds can be cashed in at any time for their full face value.


Capitalism

An economic system in which the marketplace, through the pricing mechanism, determines the allocation and distribution of scarce goods and services, with a minimum of government involvement.


Cash

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually
includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash
equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.


Cash and equivalents

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a
company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's
Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.


Clean Float

A flexible exchange rate system in which the government does not intervene.


Concession agreement

An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the
rules under which the company can operate locally.


Consignor

A party shipping goods to a consignee. The consignee then makes an effort to sell
the goods for the account of the consignor.
Consignee A party to whom goods are shipped under a consignment agreement from a consignor.
Until ultimate sale, the goods remain the property of the consignor.


Conventional pass-throughs

Also called private-label pass-throughs, any mortgage pass-through security not
guaranteed by government agencies. Compare agency pass-throughs.


Convertibility

The degree of freedom to exchange a currency without government restrictions or controls.


cost accounting

a discipline that focuses on techniques or
methods for determining the cost of a project, process, or
thing through direct measurement, arbitrary assignment, or
systematic and rational allocation


cost allocation

the assignment, using some reasonable basis,
of any indirect cost to one or more cost objects


cost consciousness

a company-wide attitude about the topics
of cost understanding, cost containment, cost avoidance,
and cost reduction


cost leadership strategy

a plan to achieve the position in a
competitive environment of being the low cost producer of
a product or provider of a service; it provides one method
of avoiding competition


cost of production report

a process costing document that
details all operating and cost information, shows the computation
of cost per equivalent unit, and indicates cost assignment
to goods produced during the period


Davis-Bacon Act of 1931

A federal Act providing wage protection to nongovernment
workers by requiring businesses engaged in federal construction
projects to pay their employees prevailing wages and fringe benefits.


Dealer options

Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed
securities dealers.


Debt instrument

An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond.


Debt Security

A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
security, municipal security, corporate bond, convertible debt issue, and commercial
paper.


Deposit Switching

Central bank switching of government deposits between the central bank and commercial banks.


Devaluation

Fall in the government-determined fixed exchange rate.


Dirty float

A system of floating exchange rates in which the government occasionally intervenes to change
the direction of the value of the country's currency.


Dirty Float

A flexible exchange rate system in which the government intervenes.


Discount window

Facility provided by the Fed enabling member banks to borrow reserves against collateral
in the form of governments or other acceptable paper.


Economic assumptions

Economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
financial plan.


Electronic Federal Tax Payment Systems (EFTPS)

An electronic funds transfer system used by businesses to remit taxes to the government.


enterprise resource planning (ERP) system

a packaged software program that allows a company to
(1) automate and integrate the majority of its business processes,
(2) share common data and practices across the entire enterprise, and
(3) produce and access information in a realtime environment


Eurocredits

Intermediate-term loans of Eurocurrencies made by banking syndicates to corporate and
government borrowers.


European Union (EU)

an economic alliance originally created
in 1957 as the European Economic Community by
France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
and later joined by the United Kingdom, Ireland,
Denmark, Spain, Portugal, and Greece; prior to the Maastricht
Treaty of 1993 was called the European Community;
has eliminated virtually all barriers to the flow of capital,
labor, goods, and services among member nations


Event risk

The risk that the ability of an issuer to make interest and principal payments will change because
of rare, discontinuous, and very large, unanticipated changes in the market environment such as (1) a natural
or industrial accident or some regulatory change or (2) a takeover or corporate restructuring.


Exchange controls

Governmental restrictions on the purchase of foreign currencies by domestic citizens or
on the purchase of the local domestic currency by foreigners.


Exempt securities

Instruments exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 or the
margin requirements of the SEC Act of 1934. Such securities include government bonds, agencies, munis,
commercial paper, and private placements.


Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank)

The U.S. federal government agency that extends trade credits to U.S.
companies to facilitate the financing of U.S. exports.


Expropriation

The official seizure by a government of private property. Any government has the right to
seize such property, according to international law, if prompt and adequate compensation is given.


Extraordinary item

A transaction that rarely occurs, and which is unusual, such as
expropriation of company property by a foreign government. It is reported as a separate
line item on the income statement.


Federal agency securities

Securities issued by corporations and agencies created by the U.S. government,
such as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and Ginnie Mae.


Federal credit agencies

Agencies of the federal government set up to supply credit to various classes of
institutions and individuals, e.g. S&Ls, small business firms, students, farmers, and exporters.


Federal Employer Identification Number

A unique identification number issued
by the federal government used for payroll purposes to identify the company
when it deals with the Internal Revenue Service.


Federal Insurance Contributions Act of 1935 (FICA)

A federal Act authorizing the government to collect Social Security and Medicare payroll taxes.


Federally related institutions

Arms of the federal government that are exempt from SEC registration and
whose securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (with the exception of the
Tennessee Valley Authority).


Fiat Money

Fiat Money is paper currency made legal tender by law or fiat. It is not backed by gold or silver and is not necessarily redeemable in coin. This practice has had widespread use for about the last 70 years. If governments produce too much of it, there is a loss of confidence. Even so, governments print it routinely when they need it. The value of fiat money is dependent upon the performance of the economy of the country which issued it. Canada's currency falls into this category.


FIFO method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that computes an average cost per equivalent
unit of production for the current period; keeps beginning
inventory units and costs separate from current period production
and costs


Financial Assistance

Economic assistance provided by unrelated third parties, typically government agencies. They may take the form of loans, loan guarantees, subsidies, tax allowances, contributions, or cost-sharing arrangements.


Fiscal policy

The use of government spending and taxing for the specific purpose of stabilizing the economy.


Fiscal Policy

A change in government spending or taxing, designed to influence economic activity.


Fixed-dollar security

A nonnegotiable debt security that can be redeemed at some fixed price or according to
some schedule of fixed values, e.g., bank deposits and government savings bonds.


Fixed Exchange Rate

An exchange rate held constant by a government promise to buy or sell dollars at the fixed rate on the foreign exchange market.


Flight to quality

The tendency of investors to move towards safer, government bonds during periods of high
economic uncertainty.


Floating Charge

Charge or assignment on a company's total assets as security for a loan on total assets without specifying specific assets.


Flower bond

Government bonds that are acceptable at par in payment of federal estate taxes when owned by
the decedent at the time of death.


Foreign bond market

That portion of the domestic bond market that represents issues floated by foreign
companies to governments.


Foreign exchange controls

Various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of
foreign currencies by residents or on the purchase/sale of local currency by nonresidents.


Form 1099

A form used by businesses to report to the government payments
made to certain types of suppliers.


Form 8027

The form used by employers to report tip income by their employees
to the government.


Form 940-EZ

A shortened version of the Form 940.
Form 941
A form used to identify to the government the amount of all quarterly
wages on which taxes were withheld, the amount of taxes withheld, and any adjustments
to withheld taxes from previous reporting periods.


Free float

An exchange rate system characterized by the absence of government intervention. Also known as
clean float.


Free Trade

The absence of any government restrictions, such as tariffs or quotas, on imports or exports.


Fully modified pass-throughs

Agency pass-throughs that guarantee the timely payment of both interest and
principal. Related: modified pass-throughs
Functional currency As defined by FASB No. 52, an affiliate's functional currency is the currency of the
primary economic environment in which the affiliate generates and expends cash.


Gilts

British and Irish government securities.


Ginnie Mae

See:Government National Mortgage Association.


Globalization

Tendency toward a worldwide investment environment, and the integration of national capital
markets.


Growth rates

Compound annual growth rate for the number of full fiscal years shown. If there is a negative
or zero value for the first or last year, the growth is nm (not meaningful).


income funds

Mutual funds that seek regular income. This type of fund invests primarily in government, corporate and other types of bonds, debt securities, and other income producing securities and in certain circumstances can also hold common and preferred shares.


Income tax

A government tax on the income earned by an individual or corporation.


Independent Broker

This is a provincial government licensed independent businessperson who usually represents five or more life insurance companies in a sales and service capacity and who is paid a commission by those life insurance companies for sales and service of life insurance products. We for example, have been in business for 12 years and regularly place new business with over twenty different life insurance companies.


Industrial revenue bond (IRB)

Bond issued by local government agencies on behalf of corporations.


Institutionally Induced Unemployment

Unemployment due to institutional phenomena such as the degree of labor force unionization, the level of discrimination, and government policies such as unemployment insurance programs, minimum wages, or regulations on business.


Insured Retirement Plan

This is a recently coined phrase describing the concept of using Universal Life Insurance to tax shelter earnings which can be used to generate tax-free income in retirement. The concept has been described by some as "the most effective tax-neutralization strategy that exists in Canada today."
In addition to life insurance, a Universal Life Policy includes a tax-sheltered cash value fund that cannot exceed the policy's face value. Deposits made into the policy are partially used to fund the life insurance and partially grow tax sheltered inside the policy. It should be pointed out that in order for this to work, you must make deposits into this kind of policy well in excess of the cost of the underlying insurance. Investment of the cash value inside the policy are commonly mutual fund type investments. Upon retirement, the policy owner can draw on the accumulated capital in his/her policy by using the policy as collateral for a series of demand loans at the bank. The loans are structured so the sum of money borrowed plus interest never exceeds 75% of the accumulated investment account. The loans are only repaid with the tax free death benefit at the death of the policy holder. Any remaining funds are paid out tax free to named beneficiaries.
Recognizing the value to policy holders of this use of Universal Life Insurance, insurance companies are reworking features of their products to allow the policy holder to ask to have the relationship of insurance to investment growth tracked so that investment growth inside the policy may be maximized. The only potential downside of this strategy is the possibility of the government changing the tax rules to prohibit using a life insurance product in this manner.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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