Financial Terms
National Income and Product Accounts

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Definition of National Income and Product Accounts

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National Income and Product Accounts

The national accounting system that records economic activity such as GDP and related measures.

Related Terms:

Accounts payable

Money owed to suppliers.

Accounts receivable

Money owed by customers.

Accounts receivable turnover

The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
quickly customers pay their bills.

Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks, the Bank of Japan, and the
U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it
now monitors and collects data on international banking activity and promulgates rules concerning
international bank regulation.

Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.

Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.

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Fixed-income equivalent

Also called a busted convertible, a convertible security that is trading like a straight
security because the optioned common stock is trading low.

Fixed-income instruments

Assets that pay a fixed-dollar amount, such as bonds and preferred stock.

Fixed-income market

The market for trading bonds and preferred stock.

Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

The market value of goods and services produced over time including the
income of foreign corporations and foreign residents working in the U.S., but excluding the income of U.S.
residents and corporations overseas.

Gross national product (GNP)

Measures and economy's total income. It is equal to GDP plus the income
abroad accruing to domestic residents minus income generated in domestic market accruing to non-residents.

Income beneficiary

One who receives income from a trust.

Income bond

A bond on which the payment of interest is contingent on sufficient earnings. These bonds are
commonly used during the reorganization of a failed or failing business.

Income fund

A mutual fund providing for liberal current income from investments.

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Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.

Income stock

Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - IBRD or World Bank

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high
economic priority.

International Banking Facility (IBF)

International Banking Facility. A branch that an American bank
establishes in the United States to do Eurocurrency business.

International bonds

A collective term that refers to global bonds, Eurobonds, and foreign bonds.

International Depository Receipt (IDR)

A receipt issued by a bank as evidence of ownership of one or more
shares of the underlying stock of a foreign corporation that the bank holds in trust. The advantage of the IDR
structure is that the corporation does not have to comply with all the regulatory issuing requirements of the
foreign country where the stock is to be traded. The U.S. version of the IDR is the American Depository
Receipt (ADR).

International diversification

The attempt to reduce risk by investing in the more than one nation. By
diversifying across nations whose economic cycles are not perfectly correlated, investors can typically reduce
the variability of their returns.

International finance subsidiary

A subsidiary incorporated in the U.S., usually in Delaware, whose sole
purpose was to issue debentures overseas and invest the proceeds in foreign operations, with the interest paid
to foreign bondholders not subject to U.S. withholding tax. The elimination of the corporate withholding tax
has ended the need for this type of subsidiary.

International Fisher effect

States that the interest rate differential between two countries should be an
unbiased predictor of the future change in the spot rate.

International fund

A mutual fund that can invest only outside the United States.

International market

Related: See external market.

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International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment

International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).

Investment income

The revenue from a portfolio of invested assets.
Investment management Also called portfolio management and money management, the process of
managing money.

Investment product line (IPML)

The line of required returns for investment projects as a function of beta
(nondiversifiable risk).

IRA/Keogh accounts

Special accounts where you can save and invest, and the taxes are deferred until money
is withdrawn. These plans are subject to frequent changes in law with respect to the deductibility of
contributions. Withdrawals of tax deferred contributions are taxed as income, including the capital gains from
such accounts.

London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
as well as futures-style options are traded.

London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.

Monthly income preferred security (MIP)

Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven.
The subsidiary relends the money to the parent.

Multinational corporation

A firm that operates in more than one country.

National Futures Association (NFA)

The futures industry self regulatory organization established in 1982.

National market

Related: internal market


A government takeover of a private company.

Net income

The company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business,
depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses.

Product cycle

The time it takes to bring new and/or improved products to market.

Product risk

A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender has an unusual loan in production or
inventory but does not have a sale commitment at a prearranged price.

Production payment financing

A method of nonrecourse asset-based financing in which a specified
percentage of revenue realized from the sale of the project's output is used to pay debt service.

Production-flow commitment

An agreement by the loan purchaser to allow the monthly loan quota to be
delivered in batches.

SIMEX (Singapore International Monetary Exchange)

A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.

Spread income

Also called margin income, the difference between income and cost. For a depository
institution, the difference between the assets it invests in (loans and securities) and the cost of its funds
(deposits and other sources).

Taxable income

Gross income less a set of deductions.

Underwriting income

For an insurance company, the difference between the premiums earned and the costs
of settling claims.


Amounts a company owes to creditors.


Amounts owed to a company by customers that it sold to on credit. Total accounts receivable are usually reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts.


An accounting statement that summarizes information about a company in the following format:
Net Sales
‚Äď Cost of goods sold
Gross profit
‚Äď Operating expenses
Earnings before income tax
‚Äď income tax
= Net income or (Net loss)
Formally called a ‚Äúconsolidated earnings statement,‚ÄĚ it covers a period of time such as a quarter or a year.


What the business paid to the IRS.


The profit a company makes after cost of goods sold, expenses, and taxes are subtracted from net sales.


A ratio that shows how much net income (profit) a company made on each dollar of net sales. Here’s the formula:
(Net income) / (Net sales)


A ratio that shows how much a company had to collect in net sales to make a dollar of profit. Figure it this way:
(Net sales) / (Net income)


A depreciation method that relates a machine’s depreciation to the number of units it makes each
accounting period. The method requires that someone record the machine’s output each year.


‚ÄėBuckets‚Äô within the ledger, part of the accounting system. Each account contains similar transactions (line items) that are used for the production of financial statements. Or commonly used as an abbreviation for financial statements.

Non-production overhead

A general term referring to period costs, such as selling, administration and financial expenses.

Product cost

The cost of goods or services produced.

Product market

A business’s investment in technology, people and materials in order to make, buy and sell products or services to customers.

Product/service mix

See sales mix.

Production overhead

A general term referring to indirect costs.

Residual income (RI)

The profit remaining after deducting from profit a notional cost of capital on the investment in a business or division of a business.

Accounts payable

Amounts owed by the company for goods and services that have been received, but have not yet been paid for. Usually accounts payable involves the receipt of an invoice from the company providing the services or goods.

Accounts receivable

Amounts owed to the company, generally for sales that it has made.

Allowance for doubtful accounts

A contra account related to accounts receivable that represents the amounts that the company expects will not be collected.

Dividend income

income that a company receives in the form of dividends on stock in other companies that it holds.

Income Statement

One of the basic financial statements; it lists the revenue and expense accounts of the company.
The income Statement is prepared for a given period of time.

Interest income

income that a company receives in the form of interest, usually as the result of keeping money in interest-bearing accounts at financial institutions and the lending of money to other companies.

Net income

The last line of the income Statement; it represents the amount that the company earned during a specified period.

Permanent accounts

The accounts found on the Balance Sheet; these account balances are carried forward for the lifetime of the company.

Temporary accounts

The accounts found on the income Statement and the Statement of Retained Earnings; these accounts are reduced to zero at the end of every accounting period.

accounts payable

Short-term, non-interest-bearing liabilities of a business
that arise in the course of its activities and operations from purchases on
credit. A business buys many things on credit, whereby the purchase
cost of goods and services are not paid for immediately. This liability
account records the amounts owed for credit purchases that will be paid
in the short run, which generally means about one month.

accounts receivable

Short-term, non-interest-bearing debts owed to a
business by its customers who bought goods and services from the business
on credit. Generally, these debts should be collected within a month
or so. In a balance sheet, this asset is listed immediately after cash.
(Actually the amount of short-term marketable investments, if the business
has any, is listed after cash and before accounts receivable.)
accounts receivable are viewed as a near-cash type of asset that will be
turned into cash in the short run. A business may not collect all of its
accounts receivable. See also bad debts.

accounts receivable turnover ratio

A ratio computed by dividing annual
sales revenue by the year-end balance of accounts receivable. Technically
speaking, to calculate this ratio the amount of annual credit sales should
be divided by the average accounts receivable balance, but this information
is not readily available from external financial statements. For
reporting internally to managers, this ratio should be refined and finetuned
to be as accurate as possible.

earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses‚ÄĒbut before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.

income statement

Financial statement that summarizes sales revenue
and expenses for a period and reports one or more profit lines for the
period. It’s one of the three primary financial statements of a business.
The bottom-line profit figure is labeled net income or net earnings by
most businesses. Externally reported income statements disclose less
information than do internal management profit reports‚ÄĒbut both are
based on the same profit accounting principles and methods. Keep in
mind that profit is not known until accountants complete the recording
of sales revenue and expenses for the period (as well as determining any
extraordinary gains and losses that should be recorded in the period).
Profit measurement depends on the reliability of a business’s accounting
system and the choices of accounting methods by the business. Caution:
A business may engage in certain manipulations of its accounting methods,
and managers may intervene in the normal course of operations for
the purpose of improving the amount of profit recorded in the period,
which is called earnings management, income smoothing, cooking the
books, and other pejorative terms.

net income (also called the bottom line, earnings, net earnings, and net

operating earnings)
This key figure equals sales revenue for a period
less all expenses for the period; also, any extraordinary gains and losses
for the period are included in this final profit figure. Everything is taken
into account to arrive at net income, which is popularly called the bottom
line. Net income is clearly the single most important number in business
financial reports.

product cost

This is a key factor in the profit model of a business. product
cost is the same as purchase cost for a retailer or wholesaler (distributor).
A manufacturer has to accumulate three different types of production
costs to determine product cost: direct materials, direct labor, and
manufacturing overhead. The cost of products (goods) sold is deducted
from sales revenue to determine gross margin (also called gross profit),
which is the first profit line reported in an external income statement
and in an internal profit report to managers.


an incidental output of a joint process; it is salable,
but the sales value of by-products is not substantial enough
for management to justify undertaking the joint process; it
is viewed as having a higher sales value than scrap

cost of production report

a process costing document that
details all operating and cost information, shows the computation
of cost per equivalent unit, and indicates cost assignment
to goods produced during the period

economic production run (EPR)

an estimate of the number
of units to produce at one time that minimizes the total
costs of setting up production runs and carrying inventory

equivalent units of production (EUP)

an approximation of the number of whole units of output that could have been
produced during a period from the actual effort expended
during that period; used in process costing systems to assign
costs to production

grade (of product or service)

the addition or removal of product
or service characteristics to satisfy additional needs, especially price

process productivity

the total units produced during a period
using value-added processing time

product complexity

an assessment about the number of components in a product

product contribution margin

the difference between selling price and variable cost of goods sold

product cost

a cost associated with making or acquiring inventory

productive capacity

the number of total units that could be
produced during a period based on available equipment time
productive processing time the proportion of total time that
is value-added time; also known as manufacturing cycle

product- (or process-) level cost

a cost that is caused by the development, production, or acquisition of specific products or services

product life cycle

a model depicting the stages through
which a product class (not necessarily each product) passes

product line margin

see segment margin

product variety

the number of different types of products
produced (or services rendered) by a firm

residual income

the profit earned by a responsibility center that exceeds an amount "charged" for funds committed to that center

tax-deferred income

current compensation that is taxed at a future date

tax-exempt income

current compensation that is never taxed

Fixed-income security

A security that pays a specified cash flow over a
specific period. Bonds are typical fixed-income securities.

Accounts payable

Acurrent liability on the balance sheet, representing short-term obligations
to pay suppliers.

Accounts receivable

A current asset on the balance sheet, representing short-term
amounts due from customers who have purchased on account.







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