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Definition of Mass customization

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Mass customization

High-volume production runs of a product, while still offering
high variability in the end product offered to customers.


mass customization

personalized production generally accomplished
through the use of flexible manufacturing systems;
it reflects an organization’s increase in product variety
from the same basic component elements



Related Terms:

economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


Agency pass-throughs

Mortgage pass-through securities whose principal and interest payments are
guaranteed by government agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae"), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac") and Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae").


Automated Clearing House (ACH)

A collection of 32 regional electronic interbank networks used to
process transactions electronically with a guaranteed one-day bank collection float.


Basic balance

In a balance of payments, the basic balance is the net balance of the combination of the current
account and the capital account.



Basic business strategies

Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.


Basic IRR rule

Accept the project if IRR is greater than the discount rate; reject the project is lower than the
discount rate.


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Block house

Brokerage firms that help to find potential buyers or sellers of large block trades.


Calendar

List of new issues scheduled to come to market shortly.


Calendar effect

The tendency of stocks to perform differently at different times, including such anomalies as
the January effect, month-of-the-year effect, day-of-the-week effect, and holiday effect.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.


Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in
addition to the dividend.


Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.


Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).


Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.


Clearing house / Clearinghouse

An adjunct to a futures exchange through which transactions executed its floor are settled by a
process of matching purchases and sales. A clearing organization is also charged with the proper conduct of
delivery procedures and the adequate financing of the entire operation.


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Closed-end fund

An investment company that sells shares like any other corporation and usually does not
redeem its shares. A publicly traded fund sold on stock exchanges or over the counter that may trade above or
below its net asset value. Related: Open-end fund.


Closed-end mortgage

Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.



Commission house

A firm which buys and sells future contracts for customer accounts. Related: futures
commission merchant, omnibus account.


Competitive offering

An offering of securities through competitive bidding.


Conventional pass-throughs

Also called private-label pass-throughs, any mortgage pass-through security not
guaranteed by government agencies. Compare agency pass-throughs.


Cum dividend

With dividend.


Cumulative dividend feature

A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid
in full before any common dividend payment is made.


Dependent

Acceptance of a capital budgeting project contingent on the acceptance of another project.


Detrend

To remove the general drift, tendency or bent of a set of statistical data as related to time.


Discounted dividend model (DDM)

A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
present value of all expected future dividends.


Dividend

A dividend is a portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders. A stock
selling for $20 a share with an annual dividend of $1 a share yields the investor 5%.


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Dividend clawback

With respect to a project financing, an arrangement under which the sponsors of a project
agree to contribute as equity any prior dividends received from the project to the extent necessary to cover
any cash deficiencies.



Dividend clientele

A group of shareholders who prefer that the firm follow a particular dividend policy. For
example, such a preference is often based on comparable tax situations.


Dividend discount model (DDM)

A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on the
present value of the expected cash flows.


Dividend growth model

A model wherein dividends are assumed to be at a constant rate in perpetuity.


Dividend limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to pay cash dividends.


Dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.


Dividends per share

Amount of cash paid to shareholders expressed as dollars per share.


Dividend policy

An established guide for the firm to determine the amount of money it will pay as dividends.


Dividend rate

The fixed or floating rate paid on preferred stock based on par value.


Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the Long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the
holder.


Dividend rights

A shareholders' rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive.


Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.


Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.


Dividends per share

Dividends paid for the past 12 months divided by the number of common shares
outstanding, as reported by a company. The number of shares often is determined by a weighted average of
shares outstanding over the reporting term.


Dual syndicate equity offering

An international equity placement where the offering is split into two
tranches - domestic and foreign - and each tranche is handled by a separate lead manager.


Economic dependence

Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.


Endogenous variable

A value determined within the context of a model.


Endowment funds

Investment funds established for the support of institutions such as colleges, private
schools, museums, hospitals, and foundations. The investment income may be used for the operation of the
institution and for capital expenditures.


End-of-year convention

Treating cash flows as if they occur at the end of a year as opposed to the date
convention. Under the end-of-year convention, the present is time 0, the end of year 1 occurs one year hence,
etc.


Exclusionary self-tender

The firm makes a tender offer for a given amount of its own stock while excluding
targeted stockholders.


Extendable bond

Bond whose maturity can be extended at the option of the lender or issuer.


Extendable notes

Note the maturity of which can be extended by mutual agreement of the issuer and
investors.


Extra or special dividends

A dividend that is paid in addition to a firm's "regular" quarterly dividend.


Ex-dividend

This literally means "without dividend." The buyer of shares when they are quoted ex-dividend
is not entitled to receive a declared dividend.


Ex-dividend date

The first day of trading when the seller, rather than the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to
the most recently announced dividend payment. This date set by the NYSE (and generally followed on other
US exchanges) is currently two business days before the record date. A stock that has gone ex-dividend is
marked with an x in newspaper listings on that date.


Field warehouse

Warehouse rented by a warehouse company on another firm's premises.


Fixed-price tender offer

A one-time offer to purchase a stated number of shares at a stated fixed price,
usually a premium to the current market price.


Flow-through basis

An account for the investment credit to show all income statement benefits of the credit
in the year of acquisition, rather than spreading them over the life of the asset acquired.


Flow-through method

The practice of reporting to shareholders using straight-line depreciation and
accelerated depreciation for tax purposes and "flowing through" the lower income taxes actually paid to the
financial statement prepared for shareholders.


Fully modified pass-throughs

Agency pass-throughs that guarantee the timely payment of both interest and
principal. Related: modified pass-throughs
Functional currency As defined by FASB No. 52, an affiliate's functional currency is the currency of the
primary economic environment in which the affiliate generates and expends cash.


Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)

A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.


Gross domestic product (GDP)

The market value of goods and services produced over time including the
income of foreign corporations and foreign residents working in the U.S., but excluding the income of U.S.
residents and corporations overseas.


Gross national product (GNP)

Measures and economy's total income. It is equal to GDP plus the income
abroad accruing to domestic residents minus income generated in domestic market accruing to non-residents.


Hell-or-high-water contract

A contract that obligates a purchaser of a project's output to make cash
payments to the project in all events, even if no product is offered for sale.


High-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a high-coupon bond with a new, lower coupon bond.


High price

The highest (intraday) price of a stock over the past 52 weeks, adjusted for any stock splits.


High-yield bond

See:junk bond.


Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)

Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.


Homemade dividend

Sale of some shares of stock to get cash that would be similar to receiving a cash dividend.


Independent project

A project whose acceptance or rejection is independent of the acceptance or rejection of
other projects.


Indicated dividend

Total amount of dividends that would be paid on a share of stock over the next 12 months
if each dividend were the same amount as the most recent dividend. Usually represent by the letter "e" in
stock tables.


Inflation-escalator clause

A clause in a contract providing for increases or decreases in inflation based on
fluctuations in the cost of living, production costs, and so forth.


Initial public offering (IPO)

A company's first sale of stock to the public. Securities offered in an IPO are
often, but not always, those of young, small companies seeking outside equity capital and a public market for
their stock. Investors purchasing stock in IPOs generally must be prepared to accept very large risks for the
possibility of large gains. IPO's by investment companies (closed-end funds) usually contain underwriting
fees which represent a load to buyers.


Investment product line (IPML)

The line of required returns for investment projects as a function of beta
(nondiversifiable risk).


In-house processing float

Refers to the time it takes the receiver of a check to process the payment and
deposit it in a bank for collection.


Just-in-time inventory systems

systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.


Lend

To provide money temporarily on the condition that it or its equivalent will be returned, often with an
interest fee.


Liquidating dividend

Payment by a firm to its owners from capital rather than from earnings.


Modified pass-throughs

Agency pass-throughs that guarantee (1) timely interest payments and (2) principal
payments as collected, but no later than a specified time after they are due. Related: fully modified passthroughs


Mortgage pass-through security

Also called a passthrough, a security created when one or more mortgage
holders form a collection (pool) of mortgages sells shares or participation certificates in the pool. The cash
flow from the collateral pool is "passed through" to the security holder as monthly payments of principal,
interest, and prepayments. This is the predominant type of MBS traded in the secondary market.


Multicurrency clause

Such a clause on a Euro loan permits the borrower to switch from one currency to
another currency on a rollover date.


Negative pledge clause

A bond covenant that requires the borrower to grant lenders a lien equivalent to any
liens that may be granted in the future to any other currently unsecured lenders.


Negotiated offering

An offering of securities for which the terms, including underwriters' compensation,
have been negotiated between the issuer and the underwriters.


Offering memorandum

A document that outlines the terms of securities to be offered in a private placement.


OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)

A cartel of oil-producing countries.


Open-end fund

Also called a mutual fund, an investment company that stands ready to sell new shares to the
public and to redeem its outstanding shares on demand at a price equal to an appropriate share of the value of
its portfolio, which is computed daily at the close of the market.


Open-end mortgage

Mortgage against which additional debts may be issued. Related: closed-end mortgage.


Pass-through rate

The net interest rate passed through to investors after deducting servicing, management,
and guarantee fees from the gross mortgage coupon.


Pass-through securities

A pool of fixed-income securities backed by a package of assets (i.e. mortgages)
where the holder receives the principal and interest payments. Related: mortgage pass-through security


Pass-through coupon rate

The interest rate paid on a securitized pool of assets, which is less than the rate
paid on the underlying loans by an amount equal to the servicing and guaranteeing fees.


Path dependent option

An option whose value depends on the sequence of prices of the underlying asset
rather than just the final price of the asset.


Payable through drafts

A method of making payment that is used to maintain control over payments made
on behalf of the firm by personnel in noncentral locations. The payer's bank delivers the payable through draft
to the payer, which must approve it and return it to the bank before payment can be received.


Perfect market view (of dividend policy)

Analysis of a decision on dividend policy, in a perfect capital
market environment, that shows the irrelevance of dividend policy in a perfect capital market.


Plan for reorganization

A plan for reorganizing a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.


Planned capital expenditure program

Capital expenditure program as outlined in the corporate financial plan.


Price-volume relationship

A relationship espoused by some technical analysts that signals continuing rises
and falls in security prices based on accompanying changes in volume traded.


Primary offering

A firm selling some of its own newly issued shares to investors.


Private-label pass-throughs

Related: Conventional pass-throughs.


Product cycle

The time it takes to bring new and/or improved products to market.


Product risk

A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender has an unusual loan in production or
inventory but does not have a sale commitment at a prearranged price.


Production payment financing

A method of nonrecourse asset-based financing in which a specified
percentage of revenue realized from the sale of the project's output is used to pay debt service.


Production-flow commitment

An agreement by the loan purchaser to allow the monthly loan quota to be
delivered in batches.


Public offering

The sale of registered securities by the issuer (or the underwriters acting in the interests of the
issuer) in the public market. Also called public issue.


Public warehouse

Warehouse operated by an independent warehouse company on its own premises.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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