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Legal defeasance

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Definition of Legal defeasance

Legal Defeasance Image 1

Legal defeasance

The deposit of cash and permitted securities, as specified in the bond indenture, into an
irrevocable trust sufficient to enable the issuer to discharge fully its obligations under the bond indenture.



Related Terms:

Defeasance

Practice whereby the borrower sets aside cash or bonds sufficient to service the borrower's debt.
Both the borrower's debt and the offestting cash or bonds are removed from the balance sheet.


Economic defeasance

See: in-substance defeasance.


Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA)

A federal Act shielding employers from liability if they have made
a good-faith effort to verify a new employee’s identity and employment eligibility.


In-substance defeasance

defeasance whereby debt is removed from the balance sheet but not cancelled.


Legal bankruptcy

A legal proceeding for liquidating or reorganizing a business.



Legal capital

Value at which a company's shares are recorded in its books.


Legal investments

Investments that a regulated entity is permitted to make under the rules and regulations
that govern its investing.


Legal Defeasance Image 2

Legal Reserve Requirement

See reserve requirement.


Classical Macroeconomics

The school of macroeconomic thought prior to the rise of Keynesianism.


Economic assumptions

economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
financial plan.


economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


Economic dependence

Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.


Economic earnings

The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in
the firm's productive capacity.


Economic exposure

The extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change.


Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.


economic integration

the creation of multi-country markets
by developing transnational rules that reduce the fiscal and
physical barriers to trade as well as encourage greater economic
cooperation among countries


Legal Defeasance Image 1

Economic life

The period over which a company expects to be able to use an asset.


economic order quantity

Order size that minimizes total inventory costs.



Economic order quantity (EOQ)

The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.


economic order quantity (EOQ)

an estimate of the number
of units per order that will be the least costly and provide
the optimal balance between the costs of ordering
and the costs of carrying inventory


economic production run (EPR)

an estimate of the number
of units to produce at one time that minimizes the total
costs of setting up production runs and carrying inventory


Economic rents

Profits in excess of the competitive level.


Economic risk

In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements.


Economic surplus

For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market
value of its liabilities.


Economic union

An agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital,
labor, all goods and services, and involves the harmonization and unification of social, fiscal, and monetary
policies.


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.


economic value added (EVA)

a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated
as income minus (invested capital times the cost of capital percentage)


Legal Defeasance Image 2

economic value added (EVA)

Term used by the consulting firm Stern Stewart for profit remaining after deduction of the cost
of the capital employed.



economically reworked

when the incremental revenue from the sale of reworked defective units is greater than
the incremental cost of the rework


Economics

The study of the allocation and distribution of scare resources among competing wants.


Leading economic indicators

economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.


Macroeconomics

The study of the determination of economic aggregates such as total output and the price level.


Microeconomics

The study of firm and individual decisions insofar as they affect the allocation and distribution of goods and services.


Supply-Side Economics

View that incentives to work, save, and invest play an important role in determining economic activity by affecting the supply side of the economy.


American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)

Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign
shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. One ADR may
represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's
are "sponsored," the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may
subsidize the administration of the ADRs. "Unsponsored" ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs carry
the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. American depositary shares(ADSs) are
a similar form of certification.


amortization

This term has two quite different meanings. First, it may
refer to the allocation to expense each period of the total cost of an
intangible asset (such as the cost of a patent purchased from the inventor)
over its useful economic life. In this sense amortization is equivalent
to depreciation, which allocates the cost of a tangible long-term operating
asset (such as a machine) over its useful economic life. Second, amortization
may refer to the gradual paydown of the principal amount of a debt.
Principal refers to the amount borrowed that has to be paid back to the
lender as opposed to interest that has to be paid for use of the principal.
Each period, a business may pay interest and also make a payment on
the principal of the loan, which reduces the principal amount of the loan,
of course. In this situation the loan is amortized, or gradually paid down.


Announcement date

Date on which particular news concerning a given company is announced to the public.
Used in event studies, which researchers use to evaluate the economic impact of events of interest.


Asset

Probable future economic benefit that is obtained or controlled by an entity as a result of
a past transaction or event.


Balance of payments

A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions
between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a
calendar year.


Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).


Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.


Business cycle

Repetitive cycles of economic expansion and recession.


Business risk

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic
conditions, making it difficult for the issuer to meet its operating expenses.


capital

A very broad term rooted in economic theory and referring to
money and other assets that are invested in a business or other venture
for the general purpose of earning a profit, or a return on the investment.
Generally speaking, the sources of capital for a business are
divided between debt and equity. Debt, as you know, is borrowed money
on which interest is paid. Equity is the broad term for the ownership
capital invested in a business and is most often called owners’ equity.
Owners’ equity arises from two quite different sources: (1) money or
other assets invested in the business by its owners and (2) profit earned
by the business that is retained and not distributed to its owners (called
retained earnings).


Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


capital expenditures

Refers to investments by a business in long-term
operating assets, including land and buildings, heavy machinery and
equipment, vehicles, tools, and other economic resources used in the
operations of a business. The term capital is used to emphasize that
these are relatively large amounts and that a business has to raise capital
for these expenditures from debt and equity sources.


Capitalism

An economic system in which the marketplace, through the pricing mechanism, determines the allocation and distribution of scarce goods and services, with a minimum of government involvement.


Closed Economy

An economy in which imports and exports are very small relative to GDP and so are ignored in macroeconomic analysis. Contrast with open economy.


Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.


Country risk General

Level of political and economic uncertainty in a country affecting the value of loans or
investments in that country.


Cross-border risk

Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.


defective unit

a unit that has been rejected at a control inspection
point for failure to meet appropriate standards of
quality or designated product specifications; can be economically
reworked and sold through normal distribution channels


Depression

A prolonged period of very low economic activity with large-scale unemployment.


equity

Refers to one of the two basic sources of capital for a business, the
other being debt (borrowed money). Most often, it is called owners’
equity because it refers to the capital used by a business that “belongs”
to the ownership interests in the business. Owners’ equity arises from
two quite distinct sources: capital invested by the owners in the business
and profit (net income) earned by the business that is not distributed to
its owners (called retained earnings). Owners’ equity in our highly developed
and sophisticated economic and legal system can be very complex—
involving stock options, financial derivatives of all kinds, different
classes of stock, convertible debt, and so on.


European Union (EU)

An economic association of European countries founded by the Treaty of Rome in
1957 as a common market for six nations. It was known as the European Community before 1993 and is
comprised of 15 European countries. Its goals are a single market for goods and services without any
economic barriers and a common currency with one monetary authority. The EU was known as the European
Community until January 1, 1994.


European Union (EU)

an economic alliance originally created
in 1957 as the European economic Community by
France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
and later joined by the United Kingdom, Ireland,
Denmark, Spain, Portugal, and Greece; prior to the Maastricht
Treaty of 1993 was called the European Community;
has eliminated virtually all barriers to the flow of capital,
labor, goods, and services among member nations


EVA

See economic value added.


Extended Amortization Period

An amortization period that continues beyond a long-lived asset's economic useful life.


Factor of Production

A resource used to produce a good or service. The main macroeconomic factors of production are capital and labor.


Financial Assistance

economic assistance provided by unrelated third parties, typically government agencies. They may take the form of loans, loan guarantees, subsidies, tax allowances, contributions, or cost-sharing arrangements.


Financial Incentive

An expression of economic benefit that motivates behavior that might otherwise not take place.


financial reports and statements

Financial means having to do with
money and economic wealth. Statement means a formal presentation.
Financial reports are printed and a copy is sent to each owner and each
major lender of the business. Most public corporations make their financial
reports available on a web site, so all or part of the financial report
can be downloaded by anyone. Businesses prepare three primary financial
statements: the statement of financial condition, or balance sheet;
the statement of cash flows; and the income statement. These three key
financial statements constitute the core of the periodic financial reports
that are distributed outside a business to its shareowners and lenders.
Financial reports also include footnotes to the financial statements and
much other information. Financial statements are prepared according to
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which are the authoritative
rules that govern the measurement of net income and the reporting
of profit-making activities, financial condition, and cash flows.
Internal financial statements, although based on the same profit
accounting methods, report more information to managers for decision
making and control. Sometimes, financial statements are called simply
financials.


Fiscal Policy

A change in government spending or taxing, designed to influence economic activity.


Flight to quality

The tendency of investors to move towards safer, government bonds during periods of high
economic uncertainty.


Forecast

Future-oriented financial information prepared using assumptions all of which reflect the entity's planned courses of action for the period covered given management's judgment as to the most probable set of economic conditions.


Fully modified pass-throughs

Agency pass-throughs that guarantee the timely payment of both interest and
principal. Related: modified pass-throughs
Functional currency As defined by FASB No. 52, an affiliate's functional currency is the currency of the
primary economic environment in which the affiliate generates and expends cash.


Future-Oriented Financial Information

Information about prospective results of operations, financial position and/or changes in financial position, based on assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action. Future-oriented financial information is presented as either a forecast or a projection.


Group of five (G5/G-5)

The five leading countries (France, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and the U.S.) that
meet periodically to achieve some cooperative effort on international economic issues. When currency issues
are discussed, the monetary authorities of these nations hold the meeting.


Import-substitution development strategy

A development strategy followed by many Latin American
countries and other LDCs that emphasized import substitution - accomplished through protectionism - as the
route to economic growth.


Infrastructure

Basic facilities, such as transportation, communication, and legal systems, on which economic activity depends.


Insurable Interest

In England in the 1700's it was popular to bet on the date of death of certain prominent public figures. Anyone could buy life insurance on another's life, even without their consent. Unfortunately, some died before it was their time, dispatched prematurely in order that the life insurance proceeds could be collected. In 1774, English Parliament passed a law which restricted the right to be a beneficiary on a life insurance contract to those who would suffer an economic loss when the life insured died. The law also provided that a person has an unlimited insurable interest in his own life. It is still a legal stipulation that an insurance contract is not valid unless insurable interest exists at the time the policy is issued. Life Insurance companies will not, however, issue unlimited amounts of coverage to an individual. The amount of life insurance which will be approved has to approximate the loss caused by the death of the individual and must not result in a windfall for the beneficiary.


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - IBRD or World Bank

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high
economic priority.


International diversification

The attempt to reduce risk by investing in the more than one nation. By
diversifying across nations whose economic cycles are not perfectly correlated, investors can typically reduce
the variability of their returns.


ISO 14000

a series of international standards that are designed
to support a company’s environmental protection
and pollution prevention goals in balance with socioeconomic
needs


Keynesianism

The school of macroeconomic thought based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes as published in his 1936 book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. A Keynesian believes the economy is inherently unstable and requires active government intervention to achieve stability.


Law of one price

An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price regardless of the
means by which one goes about creating that security. This implies that if the payoff of a security can be
synthetically created by a package of other securities, the price of the package and the price of the security
whose payoff it replicates must be equal.


Liability

A probable future sacrifice of economic benefits arising from present obligations of
a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of
past transactions or events.


Life Insurance

Insurance that provides protection against an economic loss caused by death of the person insured.


market risk

Economywide (macroeconomic) sources of risk that affect the overall stock market. Also called systematic risk.


Monetarism

School of economic thought stressing the importance of the money supply in the economy. Adherents believe that the economy is inherently stable, so that policy is best undertaken through adoption of a policy rule.


Monetary Policy

Actions taken by the central bank to change the supply of money and the interest rate and thereby affect economic activity.


National Income and Product Accounts

The national accounting system that records economic activity such as GDP and related measures.


OECD

Organization for economic Cooperation and Development, consisting of most of the world's developed economies.


Peak

The transition from the end of an economic expansion to the start of a contraction.


Progress review

A periodic review of a capital investment project to evaluate its continued economic viability.


push system

the traditional production system in which
work centers may produce inventory that is not currently
needed because of lead time or economic production/
order requirements; it requires that excess inventory be
stored until needed


Reaganomics

The economic program of President Ronald Reagan, including tax cuts, restraint in spending except for defence spending, and less regulation.


Recession

Loosely speaking, a period of less-than-normal economic growth. Technically, a downturn in economic activity in which real GDP falls in two consecutive quarters.


Regulatory surplus

The surplus as measured using regulatory accounting principles (RAP) which may allow
the non-market valuation of assets or liabilities and which may be materially different from economic surplus.


residual income

Also called economic value added. Profit minus cost of capital employed.


Sales forecast

A key input to a firm's financial planning process. External sales forecasts are based on
historical experience, statistical analysis, and consideration of various macroeconomic factors.


spoiled unit

a unit that is rejected at a control inspection
point for failure to meet appropriate standards of quality
or designated product specifications; it cannot be economically
reworked to be brought up to standard


Tactical Asset Allocation (TAA)

An asset allocation strategy that allows active departures from the normal
asset mix based upon rigorous objective measures of value. Often called active management. It involves
forecasting asset returns, volatilities and correlations. The forecasted variables may be functions of
fundamental variables, economic variables or even technical variables.


Target

A specific level of some economic variable that a policy attempts to maintain.


Tilted portfolio

An indexing strategy that is linked to active management through the emphasis of a
particular industry sector, selected performance factors such as earnings momentum, dividend yield, priceearnings
ratio, or selected economic factors such as interest rates and inflation.


Top-down equity management style

A management style that begins with an assessment of the overall
economic environment and makes a general asset allocation decision regarding various sectors of the financial
markets and various industries. The bottom-up manager, in contrast, selects the specific securities within the
favored sectors.


Trough

The transition point between economic recession and recovery.


Underground Economy

economic activity not observed by tax collectors and government statisticians.


Utility function

A mathematical expression that assigns a value to all possible choices. In portfolio theory the
utility function expresses the preferences of economic entities with respect to perceived risk and expected return.


Velocity

The number of times during a year that the money supply turns over in supporting that year's economic activity, measured as the ratio of nominal income to the money supply.


What If Scenarios

Analysis of the economic effect of possible future situations such as economic downturns, loss of key customers, changes in interest rates or price levels, new competitors or technologies.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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