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Definition of Issue

Issue Image 1

Issue

A particular financial asset.


Issue

When an item is approved and released for sale, or when a policy or sales contract is accepted.



Related Terms:

Bellwether issues

Related:Benchmark issues.


Benchmark issues

Also called on-the-run or current coupon issues or bellwether issues. In the secondary
market, it's the most recently auctioned Treasury issues for each maturity.


Cheapest to deliver issue

The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a
seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date.


Current issue

In Treasury securities, the most recently auctioned issue. Trading is more active in current
issues than in off-the-run issues.



Current-coupon issues

Related: Benchmark issues


Dual-currency issues

Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different
currency.


Issue Image 2

Euroequity issues

Securities sold in the Euromarket. That is, securities initially sold to investors
simultaneously in several national markets by an international syndicate. Euromarket.
Related: external market


Issued share capital

Total amount of shares that are in issue. Related: outstanding shares.


Issuer

An entity that issues a financial asset.


Multiple-issuer pools

Under the GNMA-II program, pools formed through the aggregation of individual
issuers' loan packages.


New-issues market

The market in which a new issue of securities is first sold to investors.


Original issue discount debt (OID debt)

Debt that is initially offered at a price below par.


Oversubscribed issue

Investors are not able to buy all of the shares or bonds they want, so underwriters must
allocate the shares or bonds among investors. This occurs when a new issue is underpriced or in great demand
because of growth prospects.


Presold issue An issue

that is sold out before the coupon announcement.


Reopen an issue

The Treasury, when it wants to sell additional securities, will occasionally sell more of an
existing issue (reopen it) rather than offer a new issue.


Issue Image 3

Seasoned issue

issue of a security for which there is an existing market. Related: Unseasoned issue.


Seasoned new issue

A new issue of stock after the company's securities have previously been issued. A
seasoned new issue of common stock can be made by using a cash offer or a rights offer.



Secondary issue

1) Procedure for selling blocks of seasoned issues of stocks.
2) More generally, sale of already issued stock.


Small issues exemption

Securities issues that involve less than $1.5 million are not required to file a
registration statement with the SEC. Instead, they are governed by Regulation A, for which only a brief
offering statement is needed.


Specific issues market

The market in which dealers reverse in securities they wish to short.


Unseasoned issue

issue of a security for which there is no existing market. See: seasoned issue.


Vanilla issue

A security issue that has no unusual features.


Issued shares

The number of shares that the company has sold to the public.


Issue date

The date a security is first offered for sale. That date usually
determines when interest payments, known as coupons, are made.


Unissued stock

Stock that has been authorized for use, but which has not yet been
released for sale to prospective shareholders.


issued shares

Shares that have been issued by the company.


rights issue

issue of securities offered only to current stockholders.



Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)

A special committee of the Financial Accounting Standards Board established to reach consensus of how to account for new and unusual financial transactions that have the potential for creating differing financial reporting practices.


Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)

A separate committee within the Financial Accounting Standards Board composed of 13 members representing CPA firms and preparers of financial statements
whose purpose is to reach a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions
that have the potential for creating differing financial reporting practices.


Inventory issue

A transaction used to record the reduction in inventory from a location,
because of its release for processing or transfer to another location.


Issue Age

Age of an insured as at the policy issue date, using "age nearest" next birthday formula.


Issue Date

Date on which a policy is approved.


Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


Agency basis

A means of compensating the broker of a program trade solely on the basis of commission
established through bids submitted by various brokerage firms. agency incentive arrangement. A means of
compensating the broker of a program trade using benchmark prices for issues to be traded in determining
commissions or fees.


All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)

Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign
shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. One ADR may
represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's
are "sponsored," the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may
subsidize the administration of the ADRs. "Unsponsored" ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs carry
the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. American depositary shares(ADSs) are
a similar form of certification.


American shares

Securities certificates issued in the U.S. by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign
issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities.


Arms index

Also known as a trading index (TRIN)= (number of advancing issues)/ (number of declining
issues) (Total up volume )/ (total down volume). An advance/decline market indicator. Less than 1.0 indicates
bullish demand, while above 1.0 is bearish. The index often is smoothed with a simple moving average.


BAN (Bank anticipation notes)

Notes issued by states and municipalities to obtain interim financing for
projects that will eventually be funded long term through the sale of a bond issue.


Bearer bond

Bonds that are not registered on the books of the issuer. Such bonds are held in physical form by
the owner, who receives interest payments by physically detaching coupons from the bond certificate and
delivering them to the paying agent.


Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").


Best-efforts sale

A method of securities distribution/ underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell
as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or
fixed price sale, where the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (with the securities firm
holding any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).


Blue-sky laws

State laws covering the issue and trading of securities.


Bond

Bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The U.S. government, local
governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor
buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the
loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.


Bond indenture

The contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of
investors.


Book runner

The managing underwriter for a new issue. The book runner maintains the book of securities sold.


Bought deal

Security issue where one or two underwriters buy the entire issue.


Bracket

A term signifying the extent an underwriter's commitment in a new issue, e.g., major bracket or
minor bracket.


Brady bonds

Bonds issued by emerging countries under a debt reduction plan.


Bull-bear bond

Bond whose principal repayment is linked to the price of another security. The bonds are
issued in two tranches: in the first tranche repayment increases with the price of the other security, and in the
second tranche repayment decreases with the price of the other security.


Bulldog bond

Foreign bond issue made in London.


Business risk

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic
conditions, making it difficult for the issuer to meet its operating expenses.


Calendar

List of new issues scheduled to come to market shortly.


Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.


Callable

A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.


Cash offer

A public equity issue that is sold to all interested investors.


Certificate of deposit (CD)

Also called a time deposit, this is a certificate issued by a bank or thrift that
indicates a specified sum of money has been deposited. A CD bears a maturity date and a specified interest
rate, and can be issued in any denomination. The duration can be up to five years.


Circle

Underwriters, actual or potential, often seek out and "circle" investor interest in a new issue before
final pricing. The customer circled basically made a commitment to purchase the issue if it comes at an
agreed-upon price. In the latter case, if the price is other than that stipulated, the customer supposedly has first
offer at the actual price.


Closed-end mortgage

Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.


Collateral trust bonds

A bond in which the issuer (often a holding company) grants investors a lien on
stocks, notes, bonds, or other financial asset as security. Compare mortgage bond.


Comanger

A bank that ranks just below a lead manager in a syndicated Eurocredit or international bond
issue. Comanagers may assist the lead manger bank in the pricing and issue of the instrument.


Commercial paper

Short-term unsecured promissory notes issued by a corporation. The maturity of
commercial paper is typically less than 270 days; the most common maturity range is 30 to 50 days or less.


Common stock equivalent

A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned
common stock is trading high.


Competitive bidding

A securities offering process in which securities firms submit competing bids to the
issuer for the securities the issuer wishes to sell.


Confirmation

he written statement that follows any "trade" in the securities markets. Confirmation is issued
immediately after a trade is executed. It spells out settlement date, terms, commission, etc.


Consol

A type of bond that has an infinite life but is not issued in the U.S. capital markets.


Conversion factors

Rules set by the Chicago Board of Trade for determining the invoice price of each
acceptable deliverable Treasury issue against the Treasury Bond futures contract.


Conversion premium

The percentage by which the conversion price in a convertible security exceeds the
prevailing common stock price at the time the convertible security is issued.


Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.


Corporate bonds

Debt obligations issued by corporations.


Covenants

Provisions in a bond indenture or preferred stock agreement that require the bond or preferred
stock issuer to take certain specified actions (affirmative covenants) or to refrain from taking certain specified
actions (negative covenants).


Credit analysis

The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
ability of the issuer to live up to its future contractual obligations. Related: default risk


Credit risk

The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on his obligations, or that the
payment may not be made on a negotiable instrument. Related: Default risk


Cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.


Debenture bond

An unsecured bond whose holder has the claim of a general creditor on all assets of the
issuer not pledged specifically to secure other debt. Compare subordinated debenture bond, and collateral
trust bonds.


Dedicated capital

Total par value (number of shares issued, multiplied by the par value of each share). Also
called dedicated value.


Deep-discount bond

A bond issued with a very low coupon or no coupon and selling at a price far below par
value. When the bond has no coupon, it's called a zero coupon bond.


Default risk

Also referred to as credit risk (as gauged by commercial rating companies), the risk that an
issuer of a bond may be unable to make timely principal and interest payments.


Defined contribution plan

A pension plan in which the sponsor is responsible only for making specified
contributions into the plan on behalf of qualifying participants. Related: defined benefit plan
Delayed issuance pool Refers to MBSs that at the time of issuance were collateralized by seasoned loans
originated prior to the MBS pool issue date.


Detachable warrant

A warrant entitles the holder to buy a given number of shares of stock at a stipulated
price. A detachable warrant is one that may be sold separately from the package it may have originally been
issued with (usually a bond).


Direct paper

Commercial paper sold directly by the issuer to investors.


Direct placement

Selling a new issue not by offering it for sale publicly, but by placing it with one of several
institutional investors.


Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.


Discount securities

Non-interest-bearing money market instruments that are issued at a discount and
redeemed at maturity for full face value, e.g. U.S. Treasury bills.


Distributed

After a Treasury auction, there will be many new issues in dealer's hands. As those issues are
sold, it is said that they are distributed.


Embedded option

An option that is part of the structure of a bond that provides either the bondholder or
issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades
separately from any underlying security.


Equipment trust certificates

Certificates issued by a trust that was formed to purchase an asset and lease it
to a lessee. When the last of the certificates has been repaid, title of ownership of the asset reverts to the
lessee.


Equity kicker

Used to refer to warrants because they are usually issued attached to privately placed bonds.


Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.


Euro CDs

CDs issued by a U.S. bank branch or foreign bank located outside the U.S. Almost all Euro CDs
are issued in London.


Eurobond

A bond that is (1) underwritten by an international syndicate, (2) offered at issuance
simultaneously to investors in a number of countries, and (3) issued outside the jurisdiction of any single
country.


Eurocurrency market

The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.


Euro-commercial paper

Short-term notes with maturities up to 360 days that are issued by companies in
international money markets.


Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.


Event risk

The risk that the ability of an issuer to make interest and principal payments will change because
of rare, discontinuous, and very large, unanticipated changes in the market environment such as (1) a natural
or industrial accident or some regulatory change or (2) a takeover or corporate restructuring.


Exchangeable Security

Security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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