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Definition of interpolation

Interpolation Image 1

interpolation

the process of finding a term between two
other terms in a series



Related Terms:

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

Cumulative gains or losses reported in shareholders'
equity that arise from changes in the fair value of available-for-sale securities, from the
effects of changes in foreign-currency exchange rates on consolidated foreign-currency financial
statements, certain gains and losses on financial derivatives, and from adjustments for underfunded
pension plans.


business process reengineering (BPR)

the process of combining information technology to create new and more effective
business processes to lower costs, eliminate unnecessary
work, upgrade customer service, and increase
speed to market


Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model


Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.



Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.


Corporate processing float

The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer
payments.


Interpolation Image 1

cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the

relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
of action (such as providing information or investing in a
project)


Credit Terms

Conditions under which credit is extended by a lender to a borrower.


Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models


Diffusion process

A conception of the way a stock's price changes that assumes that the price takes on all
intermediate values. dirty price. Related: full price


Disintermediation

Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.


Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.


FIFO method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that computes an average cost per equivalent
unit of production for the current period; keeps beginning
inventory units and costs separate from current period production
and costs


Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.


financial intermediary

Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
organizations by investing in their securities.


Interpolation Image 2

Financial Intermediary

Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.


Financial Intermediation

The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.



Flexible Term

Optional periods of time which the conditions of a contract will be carried out.


In-house processing float

Refers to the time it takes the receiver of a check to process the payment and
deposit it in a bank for collection.


Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


Intermediary

An independent third party that may act as a mediator during negotiations.


Intermediate Good

A good used in producing another good.


Intermediate-term

Typically 1-10 years.


Intermediation

Investment through a financial institution. Related: disintermediation.


Ito process

Statistical assumptions about the behavior of security prices. For
details, see the book by Hull listed in the “Bibliography”.


Interpolation Image 3

joint process

a manufacturing process that simultaneously
produces more than one product line
joint product one of the primary outputs of a joint process;
each joint product individually has substantial revenuegenerating
ability



Liquidity theory of the term structure

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward
rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a
liquidity premium.


Long-term

In accounting information, one year or greater.


Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.


Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.


Long-term debt

A debt for which payments will be required for a period of more than
one year into the future.


Long Term Debt

Liability due in a year or more.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.


Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.


Long-term financial plan

Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


Long-term liabilities

Amount owed for leases, bond repayment and other items due after 1 year.


LONG-TERM LIABILITIES

Bills that are payable in more than one year, such as a mortgage or bonds.


Long-term liabilities

Amounts owing after more than one year.


Longer-Term Fixed Assets

Assets having a useful life greater than one year but the duration of the 'long term' will vary with the context in which the term is applied.


Medium-term note

A corporate debt instrument that is continuously offered to investors over a period of
time by an agent of the issuer. Investors can select from the following maturity bands: 9 months to 1 year,
more than 1 year to 18 months, more than 18 months to 2 years, etc., up to 30 years.


modified FIFO method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that uses FIFO to compute a cost per
equivalent unit but, in transferring units from a department,
the costs of the beginning inventory units and the
units started and completed are combined and averaged


multiprocess handling

the ability of a worker to monitor
and operate several (or all) machines in a manufacturing
cell or perform all steps of a specific task


network organization

a flexible organization structure that
establishes a working relationship among multiple entities,
usually to pursue a single function


Other assets

A cluster of accounts that are listed after fixed assets on the balance sheet,
and which contain minor assets that cannot be reasonably fit into any of the other
main asset categories.


Other capital

In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital
transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It
is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from
country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most non-negotiable instruments of a
year or more like bank loans and mortgages. other short-term capital includes financial assets of less than a
year such as currency, deposits, and bills.


Other current assets

Value of non-cash assets, including prepaid expenses and accounts receivable, due
within 1 year.


Other long term liabilities

Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.


Other sources

Amount of funds generated during the period from operations by sources other than
depreciation or deferred taxes. Part of Free cash flow calculation.


Other-than-Temporary Decline in Market Value

The standard used to describe a decline in market value that is not expected to recover. The use of the other-than-temporary description as
opposed to describing a loss as permanent stresses the fact that the burden of proof is on the
investor who believes a decline is only temporary. That investor must have the intent and financial
ability to hold the investment until its market value recovers. In the absence of an ability to
demonstrate that a decline is temporary, the conclusion must be that a decline in value is other
than temporary, in which case the decline in value must be recognized in income.


predetermined overhead rate

an estimated constant charge per unit of activity used to assign overhead cost to production or services of the period; it is calculated by dividing total budgeted annual overhead at a selected level of volume or activity by that selected measure of volume or activity; it is also the standard overhead application rate


Price discovery process

The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the
interactions of buyers and sellers.


Process

A series of linked activities that result in a specific objective. For example, the
payroll process requires the calculation of hours worked, multiplication by hourly
rates, and the subtraction of taxes before the final objective is reached, which is the
printing of the paycheck.


process benchmarking

benchmarking that focuses on practices and how the best-in-class companies achieved their results


process complexity

an assessment about the number of processes through which a product flows


Process costing

A method of costing for continuous manufacture in which costs for an accounting compared are compared with production for the same period to determine a cost per unit produced.


Process costing

A costing methodology that arrives at an individual product cost through the calculation of average costs for large quantities of identical products.


process costing system

a method of accumulating and assigning costs to units of production in companies producing large quantities of homogeneous products;
it accumulates costs by cost component in each production department and assigns costs to units using equivalent units of production


Process flow production

A production configuration in which products are continually
manufactured with minimal pauses or queuing.


process map

a flowchart or diagram indicating every step
that goes into making a product or providing a service


process productivity

the total units produced during a period
using value-added processing time


process quality yield

the proportion of good units that resulted from the activities expended


processing time

the actual time consumed performing the
functions necessary to manufacture a product


product- (or process-) level cost

a cost that is caused by the development, production, or acquisition of specific products or services


Purchased In-Process Research and Development

Unfinished research and development that is acquired from another firm.


Repayment Terms

The length of time given a borrower by a lender to repay a debt and the frequency of principal payments which the borrower has to meet.


Reprocessed material

Material that has been reworked and returned to stock.


Series

Options: All option contracts of the same class that also have the same unit of trade, expiration date,
and exercise price. Stocks: shares which have common characteristics, such as rights to ownership and voting,
dividends, par value, etc. In the case of many foreign shares, one series may be owned only by citizens of the
country in which the stock is registered.


Series bond

Bond that may be issued in several series under the same indenture.


Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.


Short-term investment services

Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.


Short-term solvency ratios

Ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term
obligations as they come due, including
1) the current ratio,
2) the acid-test ratio,
3) the inventory turnover ratio, and
4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.


Short-term tax exempts

Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.


statistical process control (SPC)

the use of control techniques that are based on the theory that a process has natural variations in it over time, but uncommon variations
are typically the points at which the process produces "errors", which can be defective goods or poor service


strict FIFO method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that uses FIFO to compute a cost per equivalent unit and, in transferring units from a department, keeps the
cost of the beginning units separate from the cost of the
units started and completed during the current period


Term

See term to maturity.


Term

This is usually the duration of a loan.


term

The period of time during which a financial contract – such as a GIC or a loan – is in force.


Term

The time period during which a policy is in force, or the time it takes for a policy to reach maturity.


Term bonds

Often referred to as bullet-maturity bonds or simply bullet bonds, bonds whose principal is
payable at maturity. Related: serial bonds


Term Deposit

An interest-earning bank deposit that cannot be withdrawn without penalty until a specific time.


Term Fed Funds

Fed Funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.


Term insurance

Provides a death benefit only, no build-up of cash value.


Term Life

A product that provides life coverage for a specified duration typically not beyond the age of 75.


Term life insurance

A contract that provides a death benefit but no cash build-up or investment component.
The premium remains constant only for a specified term of years, and the policy is usually renewable at the
end of each term.


Term Life Insurance

A plan of insurance which covers the insured for only a certain period of time and not necessarily for his or her entire life. The policy pays a death benefit only if the insured dies during the term.


Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.


Term Loan

A secured loan made to business concerns for a specific period (normally three to ten years). It is repaid with interest, usually with periodical payments.


Term premiums

Excess of the yields to maturity on long-term bonds over those of short-term bonds.


Term repo

A repurchase agreement with a term of more than one day.
term structure of interest rates
Relationship between interest rates on bonds of different maturities usually
depicted in the form of a graph often depicted as a yield curve. Harvey shows that inverted term structures
(long rates below short rates) have preceded every recession over the past 30 years.


Term Sheet

A list of the major points of the proposed financing being offered by an investor.


Term structure

The relationship between the yields on fixed-interest
securities and their maturity dates. Expectation of changes in interest rates
affects term structure, as do liquidity preferences and hedging pressure. A
yield curve is one representation in the term structure.


Term Structure of Interest Rates

Relationship among interest rates on bonds with different terms to maturity.


Term to maturity

The time remaining on a bond's life, or the date on which the debt will cease to exist and
the borrower will have completely paid off the amount borrowed. See: Maturity.


Term to Maturity

Period of time from the present to the redemption date of a bond.


Term trust

A closed-end fund that has a fixed termination or maturity date.


Terminal Illness Insurance (Credit Insurance)

Coverage that provides a lump-sum payment should you become terminally ill. The payment is made to your creditors to pay off your debt owing.


Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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