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Definition of Feedforward

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The process of determining prospectively whether strategies are likely to achieve the target
results that are consistent with organizational goals.

Related Terms:

Basic business strategies

Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.

business process reengineering (BPR)

the process of combining information technology to create new and more effective
business processes to lower costs, eliminate unnecessary
work, upgrade customer service, and increase
speed to market

Corporate processing float

The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer

cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the

relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
of action (such as providing information or investing in a

Covered or hedge option strategies

strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies

Diffusion process

A conception of the way a stock's price changes that assumes that the price takes on all
intermediate values. dirty price. Related: full price

Feasible target payout ratios

Payout ratios that are consistent with the availability of excess funds to make
cash dividend payments.

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FIFO method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that computes an average cost per equivalent
unit of production for the current period; keeps beginning
inventory units and costs separate from current period production
and costs

In-house processing float

Refers to the time it takes the receiver of a check to process the payment and
deposit it in a bank for collection.

Ito process

Statistical assumptions about the behavior of security prices. For
details, see the book by Hull listed in the “Bibliography”.

joint process

a manufacturing process that simultaneously
produces more than one product line
joint product one of the primary outputs of a joint process;
each joint product individually has substantial revenuegenerating

Liability funding strategies

Investment strategies that select assets so that cash flows will equal or exceed
the client's obligations.

modified FIFO method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that uses FIFO to compute a cost per
equivalent unit but, in transferring units from a department,
the costs of the beginning inventory units and the
units started and completed are combined and averaged

multiprocess handling

the ability of a worker to monitor
and operate several (or all) machines in a manufacturing
cell or perform all steps of a specific task

Naked option strategies

An unhedged strategy making exclusive use of one of the following: Long call
strategy (buying call options ), short call strategy (selling or writing call options), Long put strategy (buying
put options ), and short put strategy (selling or writing put options). By themselves, these positions are called
naked strategies because they do not involve an offsetting or risk-reducing position in another option or the
underlying security.
Related: covered option strategies.

organizational culture

the set of basic assumptions about
the organization and its goals and ways of doing business;
a system of shared values about what is important and
beliefs about how things get accomplished; it provides a
framework that organizes and directs employee behavior
at work; it describes an organization’s norms in internal
and external, as well as formal and informal, transactions

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organizational form

an entity’s legal nature (for example,
sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation)

organizational-level cost

a cost incurred to support the ongoing
facility or operations

organizational structure

the manner in which authority and
responsibility for decision making is distributed in an entity

Price discovery process

The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the
interactions of buyers and sellers.


A series of linked activities that result in a specific objective. For example, the
payroll process requires the calculation of hours worked, multiplication by hourly
rates, and the subtraction of taxes before the final objective is reached, which is the
printing of the paycheck.

process benchmarking

benchmarking that focuses on practices and how the best-in-class companies achieved their results

process complexity

an assessment about the number of processes through which a product flows

Process costing

A method of costing for continuous manufacture in which costs for an accounting compared are compared with production for the same period to determine a cost per unit produced.

Process costing

A costing methodology that arrives at an individual product cost through the calculation of average costs for large quantities of identical products.

process costing system

a method of accumulating and assigning costs to units of production in companies producing large quantities of homogeneous products;
it accumulates costs by cost component in each production department and assigns costs to units using equivalent units of production

Process flow production

A production configuration in which products are continually
manufactured with minimal pauses or queuing.

process map

a flowchart or diagram indicating every step
that goes into making a product or providing a service

process productivity

the total units produced during a period
using value-added processing time

process quality yield

the proportion of good units that resulted from the activities expended

processing time

the actual time consumed performing the
functions necessary to manufacture a product

product- (or process-) level cost

a cost that is caused by the development, production, or acquisition of specific products or services

Purchased In-Process Research and Development

Unfinished research and development that is acquired from another firm.

Reprocessed material

Material that has been reworked and returned to stock.

results benchmarking

benchmarking in which an end product or service is examined; the focus is on product/service specifications and performance results

statistical process control (SPC)

the use of control techniques that are based on the theory that a process has natural variations in it over time, but uncommon variations
are typically the points at which the process produces "errors", which can be defective goods or poor service

strict FIFO method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that uses FIFO to compute a cost per equivalent unit and, in transferring units from a department, keeps the
cost of the beginning units separate from the cost of the
units started and completed during the current period


A specific level of some economic variable that a policy attempts to maintain.

Target Benefit Plan

A defined benefit plan under which the employer makes
annual contributions into the plan based on the actuarial assumption at that time
regarding the amount of funding needed to achieve a targeted benefit level.

Target cash balance

Optimal amount of cash for a firm to hold, considering the trade-off between the
opportunity costs of holding too much cash and the trading costs of holding too little cash.

Target costing

A method of costing that is concerned with managing whole-of-life costs of a product/service during the product design phase – the difference between target price (to achieve market share) and the target profit margin.

target costing

a method of determining what the cost of a
product should be based on the product’s estimated selling
price less the desired profit

Target firm

A firm that is the object of a takeover by another firm.

Target payout ratio

A firm's long-run dividend-to-earnings ratio. The firm's policy is to attempt to pay out a
certain percentage of earnings, but it pays a stated dollar dividend and adjusts it to the target as base-line
increases in earnings occur.

Target rate of return pricing

A method of pricing that estimates the desired return on investment to be achieved from the
fixed and working capital investment and includes that return in the price of a product/service.

Target zone arrangement

A monetary system under which countries pledge to maintain their exchange rates
within a specific margin around agreed-upon, fixed central exchange rates.

Targeted repurchase

The firm buys back its own stock from a potential bidder, usually at a substantial
premium, to forestall a takeover attempt.

Underlying Results

Earnings after removing the effects of nonrecurring or nonoperating items.

weighted average method (of process costing)

the method of cost assignment that computes an average cost per
equivalent unit of production for all units completed during
the current period; it combines beginning inventory units
and costs with current production and costs, respectively,
to compute the average


Any items being converted into finished goods or released from
the warehouse in anticipation of beginning the conversion process.

Work-in-process inventory

Inventory that has been partially converted through the
production process, but for which additional work must be completed before it can
be recorded as finished goods inventory.

Yield curve strategies

Positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in the shape of the Treasury yield curve.

Yield spread strategies

strategies that involve positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in
yield spreads between sectors of the bond market.







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