Financial Terms
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Definition of Drop, the

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Drop, the

With the dollar roll transaction the difference between the sale price of a mortgage-backed passthrough,
and its re-purchase price on a future date at a predetermined price.

Related Terms:

Par value

The stated value of a stock, which is recorded in the capital stock account.
Equity distributions cannot drop the value of stock below this minimum amount.


What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.

No par value stock

Stock issued by the company that does not have an arbitrary value (par value) assigned to it.

Parity value

Related:conversion value

Bond points

A conventional unit of measure for bond prices set at $10 and equivalent to 1% of the $100 face
value of the bond. A price of 80 means that the bond is selling at 80% of its face, or par value.

Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.

Capital surplus

Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.

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Crawling peg

An automatic system for revising the exchange rate. It involves establishing a par value around
which the rate can vary up to a given percent. The par value is revised regularly according to a formula
determined by the authorities.

Dedicated capital

Total par value (number of shares issued, multiplied by the par value of each share). Also
called dedicated value.


Referring to the selling price of a bond, a price below its par value. Related: premium.

Dividend rate

The fixed or floating rate paid on preferred stock based on par value.

Face value

See: par value.

Fixed-dollar obligations

Conventional bonds for which the coupon rate is set as a fixed percentage of the par value.

Maturity value

Related: par value.

New money

In a Treasury auction, the amount by which the par value of the securities offered exceeds that of
those maturing.

Outstanding share capital

Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held in the company's treasury.

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In a Treasury refunding, the amount by which the par value of the securities maturing exceeds that
of those sold.

Preferred stock

A security that shows ownership in a corporation and gives the holder a claim, prior to the
claim of common stockholders, on earnings and also generally on assets in the event of liquidation. Most
preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that is paid prior to the common stock dividend, stated in a dollar
amount or as a percentage of par value. This stock does not usually carry voting rights. The stock shares
characteristics of both common stock and debt.


1) Amount paid for a bond above the par value.
2) The price of an option contract; also, in futures
trading, the amount the futures price exceeds the price of the spot commodity. Related: inverted market premium payback period. Also called break-even time, the time it takes to recover the premium per share of a
convertible security.

Premium bond

A bond that is selling for more than its par value.

Purchase fund

Resembles a sinking fund except that money is used only to purchase bonds if they are selling
below their par value.

Put bond

A bond that the holder may choose either to exchange for par value at some date or to extend for a
given number of years.


Options: All option contracts of the same class that also have the same unit of trade, expiration date,
and exercise price. Stocks: shares which have common characteristics, such as rights to ownership and voting,
dividends, par value, etc. In the case of many foreign shares, one series may be owned only by citizens of the
country in which the stock is registered.

Stated conversion price

At the time of issuance of a convertible security, the price the issuer effectively
grants the security holder to purchase the common stock, equal to the par value of the convertible security
divided by the conversion ratio.

Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.

Variance rule

Specifies the permitted minimum or maximum quantity of securities that can be delivered to
satisfy a TBA trade. For Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Feddie Mac pass-through securities, the accepted
variance is plus or minus 2.499999 percent per million of the par value of the TBA quantity.

Additional paid-in capital

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with capital in excess of par.

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Capital in excess par

Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with additional paid-in capital.

Contributed capital

The amount put into the business by the owners by purchasing stock and by paying more than the par value for the stock (additional paid-in capital or capital in excess of par).

Stated value stock

Stock issued by the company that does not have a par value, but does have a stated value. For accounting purposes, stated value is functionally equivalent to par value.

capital stock

Ownership shares issued by a business corporation. A business
corporation may issue more than one class of capital stock shares.
One class may give voting privileges in the election of the directors of the
corporation while the other class does not. One class (called preferred
stock) may entitle a certain amount of dividends per share before cash
dividends can be paid on the other class (usually called common stock).
Stock shares may have a minimum value at which they have to be issued
(called the par value), or stock shares can be issued for any amount
(called no-par stock). Stock shares may be traded on public markets such
as the New York Stock Exchange or over the Nasdaq network. There are
about 10,000 stocks traded on public markets (although estimates vary
on this number). In this regard, I find it very interesting that there are
more than 8,000 mutual funds that invest in stocks.

Face Value

The nominal value of a security. Also called the par value.

Face value

The maturity value of a security. Also known as par value,
principal value, or redemption value.

Principal value

See par value.

Redemption value

See par value.

Treasury bond

Long-term debt obligation of the U.S. government that makes
coupon payments semi-annually and is sold at or near par value in $1000
denominations or higher. Face value is paid at maturity.

Additional paid-in capital

Any payment received from investors for stock that exceeds
the par value of the stock.

additional paid-in capital

Difference between issue price and par value of stock. Also called capital surplus.

face value

Payment at the maturity of the bond. Also called par value or maturity value.


The percentage amount at which bonds sell below their par value. Also the percentage amount at which a currency sells on the forward market below its current rate on the spot market.

Face Value

The payoff value of a bond upon maturity. Also called par value. See principal.

NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.


A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed-income portfolio , as well as the
individual securities held in the portfolio. BONDpar decomposes the return into those elements beyond the
manager's control--such as the interest rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and
those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations,
and individual bond selection.

Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

Carrying value

Book value.

Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

Comparative credit analysis

A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
target debt rating in order to infer an appropriate financial ratio target.

Comparison universe

The collection of money managers of similar investment style used for assessing
relative performance of a portfolio manager.

Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price

Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.

Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.

Counterpart items

In the balance of payments, counterpart items are analogous to unrequited transfers in the
current account. They arise because the double-entry system in balance of payments accounting and refer to
adjustments in reserves owing to monetization or demonetization of gold, allocation or cancellation of SDRs,
and revaluation of the various components of total reserves.


The parties to an interest rate swap.

Counterparty Party

on the other side of a trade or transaction.

Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.

Debt service parity approach

An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal).

Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money

Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.

Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

Fisher's separation theorem

The firm's choice of investments is separate from its owner's attitudes towards
investments. Also refered to as portfolio separation theorem.

Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

General partner

A partner who has unlimited liability for the obligations of the partnership.

General partnership

A partnership in which all partners are general partners.

Golden parachute

Compensation paid to top-level management by a target firm if a takeover occurs.

Interest rate parity theorem

Interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.

Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.

Investment value

Related:straight value.

Limited partner

A partner who has limited legal liability for the obligations of the partnership.

Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.

Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

Limited partnership

A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability.

Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.

Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

Master limited partnership (MLP)

A publicly traded limited partnership.

Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.

Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.

Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.

Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.

Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.

Non-parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same
number of basis points for every maturity. Related: parallel shift in the yield curve.

Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.







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