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Definition of Convexity

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A measure of the rate of change in duration; measured in time.
The greater the rate of change, the more the duration changes as yield changes.

Related Terms:

Effective convexity

The convexity of a bond calculated with cash flows that change with yields.

Negative convexity

A bond characteristic such that the price appreciation will be less than the price
depreciation for a large change in yield of a given number of basis points.

Positive convexity

property of option-free bonds whereby the price appreciation for a large upward change
in interest rates will be greater (in absolute terms) than the price depreciation for the same downward change
in interest rates.

Optimization approach to indexing

An approach to indexing which seeks to Optimize some objective, such
as to maximize the portfolio yield, to maximize convexity, or to maximize expected total returns.

Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of

Effective annual yield

Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.

Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.

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Effective date

In an interest rate swap, the date the swap begins accruing interest.

Effective duration

The duration calculated using the approximate duration formula for a bond with an
embedded option, reflecting the expected change in the cash flow caused by the option. Measures the
responsiveness of a bond's price taking into account the expected cash flows will change as interest rates
change due to the embedded option.

Effective margin (EM)

Used with SAT performance measures, the amount equaling the net earned spread, or
margin, of income on the assets in excess of financing costs for a given interest rate and prepayment rate

Effective rate

A measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of compounding.

Effective spread

The gross underwriting spread adjusted for the impact of the announcement of the common
stock offering on the firm's share price.

Negative amortization

A loan repayment schedule in which the outstanding principal balance of the loan
increases, rather than amortizing, because the scheduled monthly payments do not cover the full amount
required to amortize the loan. The unpaid interest is added to the outstanding principal, to be repaid later.

Negative carry

Related: net financing cost

Negative covenant

A bond covenant that limits or prohibits altogether certain actions unless the bondholders agree.

Negative duration

A situation in which the price of the MBS moves in the same direction as interest rates.

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Negative pledge clause

A bond covenant that requires the borrower to grant lenders a lien equivalent to any
liens that may be granted in the future to any other currently unsecured lenders.

negative cash flow

The cash flow from the operating activities of a business
can be negative, which means that its cash balance decreased from
its sales and expense activities during the period. When a business is
operating at a loss instead of making a profit, its cash outflows for
expenses very likely may be more than its cash inflow from sales. Even
when a business makes a profit for the period, its cash inflow from sales
could be considerably less than the sales revenue recorded for the
period, thus causing a negative cash flow for the period. Caution: This
term also is used for certain types of investments in which the net cash
flow from all sources and uses is negative. For example, investors in
rental real estate properties often use the term to mean that the cash
inflow from rental income is less than all cash outflows during the
period, including payments on the mortgage loan on the property.

Effective Annual Yield

Annualized rate of return on a security computed using compound
interest techniques

Effective Interest Rate

The rate of interest actually earned on an investment. It is
calculated as the ratio of the total amount of interest actually
earned for one year divided by the amount of the principal.


a measure of how well an organization’s goals
and objectives are achieved; compares actual output results
to desired results; determination of the successful accomplishment
of an objective

Negative goodwill

A term used to describe a situation in which a business combination
results in the fair market value of all assets purchased being more than the purchase

effective annual interest rate

Interest rate that is annualized using compound interest.

Effective Exchange Rate

The weighted average of several exchange rates, where the weights are determined by the extent of our trade done with each country.

Policy-Ineffectiveness Proposition

Theory that anticipated policy has no effect on output.

Blue Ribbon Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees

A committee formed in response to SEC chairman Arthur Levitt's initiative to improve the financial
reporting environment in the United States. In a report dated February 1999, the committee
made recommendations for new rules for regulation of financial reporting in the United States that
either duplicated or carried forward the recommendations of the Treadway Commission.

Effective Tax Rate

The total tax provision divided by pretax book income from continuing

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Negative Loan Covenants

Loan covenants designed to limit a corporate borrower's behavior
in favor of the lender.

Panel on Audit Effectiveness

A special committee of the Public Oversight Board that was created
to perform a comprehensive review and evaluation of the way independent audits of financial
statements of publicly traded companies are performed. The panel found generally that the
quality of audits is fundamentally sound. The panel did recommend the expansion of audit steps
designed to detect fraud.

Magic of diversification

The effective reduction of risk (variance) of a portfolio, achieved without reduction
to expected returns through the combination of assets with low or negative correlations (covariances).
Related: Markowitz diversification







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