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Consignment

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Definition of Consignment

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Consignment

A shipment of goods to a party who agrees to try to sell them to third parties. A
sale is not considered to have taken place until the goods are sold to a third party.



Related Terms:

Consignor

A party shipping goods to a consignee. The consignee then makes an effort to sell
the goods for the account of the consignor.
Consignee A party to whom goods are shipped under a consignment agreement from a consignor.
Until ultimate sale, the goods remain the property of the consignor.


Accounting exposure

The change in the value of a firm's foreign currency denominated accounts due to a
change in exchange rates.


Accounting earnings

Earnings of a firm as reported on its income statement.


Accounting insolvency

Total liabilities exceed total assets. A firm with a negative net worth is insolvent on
the books.


Accounting liquidity

The ease and quickness with which assets can be converted to cash.



Accounts payable

Money owed to suppliers.


Accounts receivable

Money owed by customers.


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Accounts receivable turnover

The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
quickly customers pay their bills.


All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


Asymmetry

A lack of equivalence between two things, such as the unequal tax treatment of interest expense
and dividend payments.


Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.


Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.


Best-efforts sale

A method of securities distribution/ underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell
as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or
fixed price sale, where the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (with the securities firm
holding any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).


Bond agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.


Book-entry securities

The Treasury and federal agencies are moving to a book-entry system in which securities are not represented by engraved pieces of paper but are maintained in computerized records at the
Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep records of the securities they own as well as those they
are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, engraved
securities do exist somewhere in quite a few cases. These securities do not move from holder to holder but are
usually kept in a central clearinghouse or by another agent.


Bretton Woods Agreement

An agreement signed by the original United Nations members in 1944 that
established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the post-World War II international monetary system
of fixed exchange rates.


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Capital account

Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.


Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.



Closing sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock,
or a given series of options.


Completion undertaking

An undertaking either (1) to complete a project such that it meets certain specified
performance criteria on or before a certain specified date or (2) to repay project debt if the completion test
cannot be met.


Concentration account

A single centralized account into which funds collected at regional locations
(lockboxes) are transferred.


Concession agreement

An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the
rules under which the company can operate locally.


Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.


Counterparties

The parties to an interest rate swap.


Counterparty Party

on the other side of a trade or transaction.


Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.


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Country beta

Covariance of a national economy's rate of return and the rate of return the world economy
divided by the variance of the world economy.



Country financial risk

The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt.


Country risk General

Level of political and economic uncertainty in a country affecting the value of loans or
investments in that country.


Country selection

A type of active international management that measures the contribution to performance
attributable to investing in the better-performing stock markets of the world.


Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) account

An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains
and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The CTA account is required
under the FASB No. 52 rule.


Current account

Net flow of goods, services, and unilateral transactions (gifts) between countries.


Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.


Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.


Debt displacement

The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
forced to cut back on borrowing.


Direct placement

selling a new issue not by offering it for sale publicly, but by placing it with one of several
institutional investors.


Discretionary account

accounts over which an individual or organization, other than the person in whose
name the account is carried, exercises trading authority or control.


Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.


Double-tax agreement

agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.


Equity contribution agreement

An agreement to contribute equity to a project under certain specified
conditions.


Firm commitment underwriting

An undewriting in which an investment banking firm commits to buy the
entire issue and assumes all financial responsibility for any unsold shares.


Fiscal agency agreement

An alternative to a bond trust deed. Unlike the trustee, the fiscal agent acts as an
agent of the borrower.


Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.


Forward rate agreement (FRA)

agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate
that is fixed today.


Forward sale

A method for hedging price risk which involves an agreement between a lender and an investor
to sell particular kinds of loans at a specified price and future time.


Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)

A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.


Industry

The category describing a company's primary business activity. This category is usually determined
by the largest portion of revenue.


Information asymmetry

A situation involving information that is known to some, but not all, participants.


Installment sale

The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments).


Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).


IRA/Keogh accounts

Special accounts where you can save and invest, and the taxes are deferred Until money
is withdrawn. These plans are subject to frequent changes in law with respect to the deductibility of
contributions. Withdrawals of tax deferred contributions are taxed as income, including the capital gains from
such accounts.


Joint account

An agreement between two or more firms to share risk and financing responsibility in
purchasing or underwriting securities.


Limitation on merger, consolidation, or sale

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to
merge or consolidate with another firm.


Limitation on sale-and-leaseback

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to enter into
sale and lease-back transactions.


Margin account (Stocks)

A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of
cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock
drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin
rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.


Marketplace price efficiency

The degree to which the prices of assets reflect the available marketplace
information. Marketplace price efficiency is sometimes estimated as the difficulty faced by active
management of earning a greater return than passive management would, after adjusting for the risk
associated with a strategy and the transactions costs associated with implementing a strategy.


Mathematical programming

An operations research technique that solves problems in which an optimal
value is sought subject to specified constraints. Mathematical programming models include linear
programming, quadratic programming, and dynamic programming.


Money market demand account

An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates.


Negotiated sale

Situation in which the terms of an offering are determined by negotiation between the issuer
and the underwriter rather than through competitive bidding by underwriting groups.


Note agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.


Omnibus account

An account carried by one futures commission merchant with another futures commission
merchant in which the transactions of two or more persons are combined and carried in the name of the
originating broker, rather than designated separately. Related: commission house.


Open account

Arrangement whereby sales are made with no formal debt contract. The buyer signs a receipt,
and the seller records the sale in the sales ledger.


Opening sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to create or increase a short position in a given
series of options.


Option seller

Also called the option writer , the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in
the future.


Overbought/oversold indicator

An indicator that attempts to define when prices have moved too far and too
fast in either direction and thus are vulnerable to reaction.


Placement

A bank depositing Eurodollars with (selling Eurodollars to) another bank is often said to be
making a placement.


Preferred stock agreement

A contract for preferred stock.


Presold issue An issue

that is sold out before the coupon announcement.


Price/sales ratio (PS Ratio)

Determined by dividing current stock price by revenue per share (adjusted for stock splits).
Revenue per share for the P/S ratio is determined by dividing revenue for past 12 months by number of shares
outstanding.


Private placement

The sale of a bond or other security directly to a limited number of investors.


Property rights

Rights of individuals and companies to own and utilize property as they see fit and to receive
the stream of income that their property generates.


Purchase accounting

Method of accounting for a merger in which the acquirer is treated as having purchased
the assets and assumed liabilities of the acquiree, which are all written up or down to their respective fair
market values, the difference between the purchase price and the net assets acquired being attributed to goodwill.


Purchase agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to purchase a specific
amount of project output per period.


Purchase and sale

A method of securities distribution in which the securities firm purchases the securities
from the issuer for its own account at a stated price and then resells them, as contrasted with a best-efforts sale.


Raw material supply agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to furnish a
specified amount per period of a specified raw material.


Regulatory accounting procedures

accounting principals required by the FHLB that allow S&Ls to elect
annually to defer gains and losses on the sale of assets and amortize these deferrals over the average life of the
asset sold.


Remainderman

One who receives the principal of a trust when it is dissolved.


Remaining maturity

The length of time remaining Until a bond's maturity.


Remaining principal balance

The amount of principal dollars remaining to be paid under the mortgage as of
a given point in time.


Replacement cost

Cost to replace a firm's assets.


Replacement cycle

The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset.


Replacement value

Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.


Replacement-chain problem

Idea that future replacement decisions must be taken into account in selecting
among projects.


Repurchase agreement

An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from
the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a
collateralized short-term loan, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument,
federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser (customer) perspective, the deal is
reported as a reverse Repo.


Revolving credit agreement

A legal commitment wherein a bank promises to lend a customer up to a
specified maximum amount during a specified period.


Sale and lease-back

sale of an existing asset to a financial institution that then leases it back to the user.
Related: lease.


Sales charge

The fee charged by a mutual fund when purchasing shares, usually payable as a commission to
marketing agent, such as a financial advisor, who is thus compensated for his assistance to a purchaser. It
represents the difference, if any, between the share purchase price and the share net asset value.


Sales forecast

A key input to a firm's financial planning process. External sales forecasts are based on
historical experience, statistical analysis, and consideration of various macroeconomic factors.


Sales-type lease

An arrangement whereby a firm leases its own equipment, such as IBM leasing its own
computers, thereby competing with an independent leasing company.


Sell hedge

Related: short hedge.


Sell limit order

Conditional trading order that indicates that a, security may be sold at the designated price or
higher. Related: buy limit order.


Selling group

All banks involved in selling or marketing a new issue of stock or bonds


Selling short

If an investor thinks the price of a stock is going down, the investor could borrow the stock from
a broker and sell it. Eventually, the investor must buy the stock back on the open market. For instance, you
borrow 1000 shares of XYZ on July 1 and sell it for $8 per share. Then, on Aug 1, you purchase 1000 shares
of XYZ at $7 per share. You've made $1000 (less commissions and other fees) by selling short.


Sell-side analyst

Also called a Wall Street analyst, a financial analyst who works for a brokerage firm and
whose recommendations are passed on to the brokerage firm's customers.


Separation property

The property that portfolio choice can be separated into two independent tasks: 1)
determination of the optimal risky portfolio, which is a purely technical problem, and 2) the personal choice
of the best mix of the risky portfolio and the risk-free asset.


Short sale

selling a security that the seller does not own but is committed to repurchasing eventually. It is
used to capitalize on an expected decline in the security's price.


Short selling

Establishing a market position by selling a security one does not own in anticipation of the price
of that security falling.


Single country fund

A mutual fund that invests in individual countries outside the United States.


Smithsonian agreement

A revision to the Bretton Woods international monetary system which was signed at
the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., in December 1971. Included were a new set of par
values, widened bands to +/- 2.25% of par, and an increase in the official value of gold to US$38.00 per ounce.


Standby agreement

In a rights issue, agreement that the underwriter will purchase any stock not purchased by investors.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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